Unsolved food problem. The level, at which the basic needs of Ukraine’s population are in terms of agricultural production, remains insufficient. In grain production, Ukraine is behind not only developed European countries (Austria, Denmark, Spain, Germany, France, Finland, and Sweden) but also its former COMECON partners — Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, and Hungary. Per capita output of meat products became 2.5 times less (from 84 kg in 1990 to 33.6 kg in 2000) over the last decade. It is one of the worst indicators in Europe. Many other basic indicators in the agro-industrial complex are also declined. As a result, at the end of the 1990s, Ukraine’s food security level was close to the critically dangerous level, by FAO criteria.
To raise agrarian reform to a qualitatively new level, systemic measures for its optimization are needed, in particular, within the framework of working out the draft Concept of the Development of Ukraine’s agro-industrial complex for the period of 2001 – 2005, planned for 2001.
So far, this study covers the analysis of the main results of agrarian reform identification and analysis of the main factors that determine these results, and formulation of measures aimed at optimization of the processes and mechanisms of reform of the agro-industrial sector.
The peculiarity of modern stage of the universal economy’s development is, in author’s opinion, the activity of the internationalization of production, which stands out as economic form of international labour division and socialization of production. The last process, in its turn, has definite expression in international specialization, cooperation and combination of production.
International cooperation and integration into the new foreign economic sphere occupies a special place in present conditions. Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union creates favourable pre-conditions for international integration when it reads: ‘Economic cooperation is realized for the assistance of economic reforms, the formation and regeneration of Ukraine’.
References: 1. Kuchma L. Along the Road of Radical Economic Reform. On the Fundamentals of Economic and Social Policies. Report of the President of Ukraine. — Kyiv, 1994. — P. 77. 2. Topical Problems of Ukraine’s Information Security. UCEPS analytical report. National Security and Defence. — 2002. — №1. — P. 3 – 15.
On Studying Growth in Transition
Economic growth has become the corner-stone of the modern science of Economics. It has long been stirring economists’ minds. Nevertheless, Economics is still lacking any commonly accepted empirical framework to investigate economic performance at the macro level. In this light the area of research, though not brand-new, is quite actual. Besides, for the countries in transition, chosen to be the field of research for this work, economic growth is the matter or the primary importance. The present work gives theoretical foundation for practical panel studies of the sources of economic growth in transitional economies. The research built on the described model could become a nationally useful piece of work, having a number of practical implications.
Most empirical models of economic growth are rooted in the Cobb-Douglas production function. A typical model represents a single equation with (per capita) growth as the dependent variable and regressors being the factors of production accumulation (physical and human capital investment, labour force growth), and some other factors the particular researcher finds significant. These could be proxies for initial conditions; fiscal policy factors; financial intermediation effectiveness indicators; proxies for R&D spending and spillovers; market distortions indicators; political instability indicators; macroeconomic stability/uncertainty; monetary indicators; proxies for equality of income distribution; indexes of primary sector production; and others.
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