Тенденції розвитку фондових ринків у контексті світової інтеграції. Деякі негативні аспекти світової інтеграції. Моніторинг ринку праці при трансформації ринкової економіки, страница 5

The problem of economic integration of Ukraine is of paramount importance. Taking into account the fact that Ukraine is one of the largest European states its integration into the European Union is the most important problem for this country.

The CE membership of Ukraine and its active participation in international organizations make for Ukraine’s integration into the EU.

The present participation of Ukraine in the international division of labour doesn’t correspond to the country’s potential. For this reason Ukraine is joining the countries of Western Europe, and is pursuing its state policy in the direction of integration.

It is necessary to mention that the most probable way of realizing the project of Ukraine’s integration into the EU is to join the international processes of member-countries of the Central European Free Trade Zone.

The foreign trade with the EU member-countries is the most important condition for the process of Ukraine’s integration into the EU. The regional structure of Ukrainian foreign trade shows the positive changes in this direction: the EU countries’ share in Ukrainian export and import is constantly rising. Ukraine’s penetration into the European market of goods and services is of vital importance for our country.

The problem of foreign investments is extremely significant for the process of Ukraine’s integration into the EU. Because of this reason the improvement of the investment situation in Ukraine promotes the solution of this problem.

The protectionism policy of the state is very important. It includes providing subsidies, the introduction of national standards, quotas, tariffs and so on.

One of the most important principles of joining the national economy to the Western European market structures is the development of scientific and technical potential of Ukraine.

The migration of labour resources is the aspect of foreign economic relations between Ukraine and the EU countries, which requires much attention.

At the present stage of Ukraine’s integration into the EU the goal is to achieve the necessary level of agricultural products protection. This is caused by great significance of agricultural production for Ukraine.

Agrarian and industrial policy, emergence and development of different forms of pro­perty and economic management require economically grounded approach. Scientific basis for such a policy is modelling of reforms with an emphasis on the criterion of increase in efficiency, i. e. increase in production, in particular, in the deep industrial processing of lower unit costs and the formation, on a sound market basis, of incomes sufficient for tax payment and for the creation of companies’ accumulation and consumption funds.

The efficiency of agrarian reform largely determines the overall course and the results of market transformation, since the agrarian sector amounts to 32% of Ukraine’s population, almost a quarter of production assets, and close to 14% of the annual output of goods and servi­ces. The documents that determine the strategy of reform in Ukraine point out that agricultural policy should be the ‘key element, stimulating factor’ of accelerated market transformation of the economy.

The necessity of reforming the agrarian sector follows not only from the systemic nature of socio-economic transformation that Ukraine is undergoing nowadays, but also from the critical state of agriculture as such. The main factors that point to the urgent need of accelerated reform in the agro-industrial complex are the following.

Low economic efficiency of agricultural production. This is particularly demonstra­ted by the large share of the population engaged in the agro-industrial complex, and low labour productivity. In the EU countries, agricultural production comes to 5% of the total labour force, in the USA — 3%, and in Ukraine — nearly 25%. One worker in Ukraine’s agriculture produces added value averaging $ 2,500 a year, i. e. 8 – 16 times less than in developed countries.