Практична граматика англійської мови для першокурсників. Частина II: Навчально-методичний посібник з граматики, страница 57

Heck saw him whitewashing the fence. (him - pronoun in the objective case; whitewashing – Participle I)

Complex Object is used only after some definite verbs. They can be grouped in the following way:

1.  Verbs of sense perception

to see  to hear           to feel             to sense          to watch          to observe      to notice

            e.g.  Stanley saw Tom walking downstairs. (action in progress)

                    Stanley saw Tom walk downstairs. (completed action)

                    We watched the books being carried downstairs. (action in progress)

                    We watched the books carried downstairs. (completed action)


·  Only bare infinitive is used after these verbs.

e.g.  Petra heard her neighbours quarrel in the garden.

·  Infinitive is used to show a completed action.

e.g.  I noticed Jane water the flowers.

·  Participle I is used to show an action is progress.

e.g.  Dina felt Simon touching her hand.

·  Participle II is used to express a completed action in the Passive Voice.

e.g.  I noticed the flowers watered.

·  If the verbs to see, to feel, to sense are used in the meaning to realize, Complex Object is not used. A subordinate clause is used instead,

          e.g. Stanley saw that Tom did not understand anything.

·  If the verb to hear is used in the meaning to learn, Complex Object is not used. A subordinate clause is used instead,

          e.g. I heard that Professor Freeman had already published his new book.

·  Sentences with Complex Object are translated into Russian/Ukrainian with a subordinate clause,

          e.g. Did you see the children leave for school? = Ты видел, что дети ушли в школу? 

                Cinderella saw the pumpkin turning into a carriage. = Золушка видела, как тыква превращалась в карету.

2.  After the verbs of mental activity

to think                 to believe        to expect        to suppose      to leave           to know

to find                   to allow           to order          to invite          to help             to picture

to permit               to prefer         to press           to warn           to imagine       to forbid

to encourage        to command                to understand             to persuade    to suspect

                  e.g.  We thought Tim to be an honest man.

                                Della preferred John to read in the garden.

                                I found the book to be really boring.

       Father ordered the books to be brought home

The mother believed her daughter to be reading in her room.


·  Only to + infinitive is used after these verbs.

·  In Modern English this structure is rather literary and not very common. It is more natural to use a subordinate clause instead.

          e.g. I though Brown to be an excellent choice for the position.(very formal) 

                 I though that Brown was an excellent choice for the position (more natural)

3.  After the verbs of wishes and emotions

to like       to love             to dislike         to detest         to hate            to want           to wish

to mean     to intend         to adore          to desire         would like       cannot bare/stand

e.g.  I disliked Tom to talk to me in that way.

       We would like the books to be brought right now.

       The teacher wanted the exercise to be done again.


·  Usually to + infinitive is used after these verbs.

·  Sometimes the verbs to want and to like are used with Participle I,

        e.g. I don’t want you talking back to me. They didn’t like me leaving so early.

·  To express an action in the Passive Voice to be + Participle II is used,

e.g.  Petunia wanted Harry to be punished by Mr. Dursley.

4.  Verbs ‘to make, to have and to let’


·  the verb ‘to let’ is used in the meaning позволять’;

·  the verbs ‘to make’ and ‘to have’ are used in the meaning заставлять’;