Практична граматика англійської мови для першокурсників. Частина II: Навчально-методичний посібник з граматики, страница 17

  1. Present perfect connects the past and the present. That is, it describes actions, which started in the past and continue up to the present or actions, which were completed in the past but whose results affect the present.

e.g. Mrs. Swift has looked after little children all her life.

                               I’ve done all my work for today and I’m free now.

  1. Present perfect is used to describe an action which started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with stative verbs such as have, like, know, be, etc. In this case, prepositions for and since areoften used.

e.g. They have been friends for twenty years.

                              (They met each other twenty years ago and they are still friends.) 

      They have been friends since they met in 1990.

  1. Present perfect is also used for an action, which has recently finished and whose result is visible in the present.

e.g.  Look at my basket. I’ve picked a lot of apples.

                               (The apples are in the basket, so the action has finished.)

4.  Present perfect is also used in clauses of time and condition for an action, which will be over before a certain moment in the future,

e.g.  The doctor will stay with us until your sister has fully recovered.

                              Could you wait till I have made these sandwiches?

5. Present Perfect is also used for an action, which happened at an unstated time in the past. The exact time is not important, so it is not mentioned. The emphasis is placed on the action,

e.g. Paul has broken his arm. (The exact time is not mentioned because what is important is the fact that his arm is broken.)

Peter has been to Paris four times. (The exact time of each of his visits is not mentioned. What is important is the fact that he has visited Paris four times.)

6. Present Perfect is also used for an action which has happened within a specific time period, which is not over at the moment of speaking, such as today, this morning, this afternoon/week/month/year, etc.

e.g. Pat has received three faxes this morning. (The action has been repeated three times up to now and may happen again because the time period - this morning - is not over yet.)

She received three taxes this morning and answered all of them. (The time period – this morning - is over. It is now probably afternoon or evening).

  1. Present Perfect is usually used in the attributes the first, the second, the only, etc.,

e.g.  It is the only book the writer has written.

                                It is the first time I have tasted mango juice.

                                 It is the second time you’ve told it to me. 

  1. Present Perfect is used for ‘breaking the news’

e.g.  Mum, I have got married!

                               Miss Flora, Peter has broken one of the windows in the classroom!

  1. Present Perfect is used to speak about people’s life experiences,

e.g.  I have been to many European countries.

                              John has never eaten fried bananas before.

  1.  Present Perfect is used to speak about a series of  repeated actions in the recent past,

e.g.  Maria has typed ten reports today.

  1. Present Perfect is preferably used in negative sentences instead of Present Perfect continuous,

e.g.  What has Bertha been doing all day? – I don’t know for sure, but I do know that she hasn’t lazed about.

  1. Present Perfect is usually used with the following time expressions (adverbial modifiers of time):
    • already

e.g. We have already seen this film.

                               Have you finished this book already? (surprise)

·  yet

e.g. Has Roger left yet?

                               Simon has not finished painting the hall yet.

·   just

e.g. I have just phoned Jill. 

                   The postman has just brought a letter for Jane.

·  always, often

e.g. Mary has always loved animals, she is going to be a vet.