Практична граматика англійської мови для першокурсників. Частина II: Навчально-методичний посібник з граматики, страница 2




  • The first, e.g. I’ll bring a cake and we’ll have tea together.
  • The second, e.g. Do you take sugar in your tea?
  • The third, e.g. She doesn’t enjoy yachting.


  • Singular, e.g. Ted sings pretty well.
  • Plural, e.g. His parents sing well, too.


  • Present, e.g. Dinosaurs don’t exist now.
  • Past, e.g. They lived millions years ago.
  • Future, e.g. I doubt if they will exist in future.


  • Indefinite (Common), e.g. Helen does a lot of work at the weekend.
  • Continuous, e.g. Peter is doing his yoga exercises at the moment.


  • Perfect, e.g. Have you seen “Gone with the Wind”?
  • Non-Perfect, e.g. I saw it last year.


  • Indicative, e.g. Joan has been learning Spanish for three years.
  • Imperative, e.g. Let’s do this work together, shall we?
  • Subjunctive, e.g. If you had done this work yesterday, you wouldn’t be so busy today.


  • Active, e.g. Marge cooks all the meals herself.
  • Passive, e.g. All the meals in the family are cooked by their mother.

Non-Finite Forms of the Verb



Infinitive                                                  Gerund                                   Participle

Lisa wants to swim.                            Lisa likes swimming.            

Lisa must swim every day.                                                          

                                                                        Present Participle                 Past Participle

          Lisa is swimming now.               Lisa has swum a lot today.


  1. Present Participle  is formed by adding the suffix –ing to the stem of the verb  and the following spelling rules are observed:

·  The final letter ‘y’ never changes when the ending ‘ing’ is added,

                  e.g.  to play + ing = playing;  to study + ing = studying

·  The final consonant is doubled if it is preceded by a short stressed vowel,

            e.g.  sit – sitting, to put – putting, to begin - beginning

·  The final letter ‘e’ is omitted before the ending ‘ing’,

            e.g.  to take + ing = taking;  to lose + ing = losing

·  Exceptions:  to lie +ing = lying;  to tie + ing = tying;  to die + ing = dying

  1. Past Participle is formed in two ways:

a)   regular verbs –ed to the stem of the verb and observe the following spelling rules:

·  the final letter ‘y’ changes into ‘i’ if it is preceded by a consonant, and remains unchanged if it is preceded by a vowel,

e.g. to carry – carried;  to study – studied; to reply – replied

       to enjoy- enjoyed; employ - employed

·  a consonant preceded by a short stressed vowel is doubled,

      e.g.  to stop – stopped; to plan – planned; to omit – omitted

·  the final letter ‘r’ is doubled if it is preceded by a stressed vowel,

      e.g.  to stir – stirred;  to occur – occurred; to prefer – preferred

·  in British English the final letter ‘l’ is always doubled,

e.g.  to travel – travelled;  to label - labelled

b)  irregular verbs have different ways of formation and must be learnt by heart. See Appendix.

Morphological StructurE of the Verb



Simple                  Derivative                  Compound             Composite = Phrasal verb

(one stem)                         (verb + affixes)           (two stems)                 (verb + post position)

to come;                to blacken;                  to overgrow;               to go on; to sit down;

to do                      to economize              to daydream                to get up; to take off

Semantic Classification of the Verb