Практична граматика англійської мови для першокурсників. Частина II: Навчально-методичний посібник з граматики, страница 48

Active Voice

Tense and Aspect Forms

Passive Voice

Mary waters flowers twice a week.

Present Indefinite (Simple)

Flowers are watered (by Mary) twice a week.

Mary watered flowers yesterday.

Past Indefinite (Simple)

Flowers were watered (by Mary) yesterday.

Mary will water flowers tomorrow.

Future Indefinite (Simple)

Flowers will be watered (by Mary) tomorrow.

Mary is watering flowers now.

Present Continuous (Progressive)

Flowers are being watered (by Mary) now.

Mary was watering flowers when it started raining.

Past Continuous


Flowers were being watered (by Mary) when it started raining.

Mary will be watering flowers when we come.

Future Continuous


 Does not exist

Mary has already watered all the flowers.

Present Perfect

All the flowers have already been watered (by Mary).

Mary had already watered all the flowers by the time we came.

Past Perfect

All the flowers had already been watered (by Mary) by the time we came.

Mary will have already watered all the flowers by the time we come.

Future Perfect

All the flowers will have already been watered (by Mary) by the time we come.

Mary has already been watering flowers for half a day.

Present Perfect Continuous

Does not exist

Mary had already been watering flowers for half a day when it started raining.

Past Perfect Continuous

Does not exist

Mary will have already been watering flowers for half a day when it starts raining.

Future Perfect Continuous

Does not exist

In English Passive Voice is used less often that Active Voice and is more formal. Passive Voice is used in the following cases:

1.  When the person who caries out the action is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context,

e.g. Ted’s flat was broken into last night. (The burglar is not known)

       Coffee beans are grown in Brazil. (It is not important who grows coffee beans)       Len’s car was serviced yesterday. (It is obvious that a mechanic did it)

2.  When the action itself is more important than the person who carries it out (e.g. in news headlines, formal notices, instructions, processes, advertisements, etc.)

e.g. The new hospital will be opened on Monday. (Formal notice)

       Then the milk is taken to a factory and pasteurized.

3.  When people refer to an unpleasant event and don’t want to say who or what is to blame,

e.g.  A lot of mistakes have been made. (Instead of "You’ve made a lot of mistakes.")

4.  Sentences with some transitive verbs can form two different passive sentences, in which both direct and indirect objects can become subjects. These verbs are:

to bring                 to tell              to send            to show           to teach          to promise

to buy                    to sell              to take                        to write           to read            to give

to hand                  to owe             to offer           to allow           to feed                        to pass

to post                   to throw          to award         to grant           to pay              to lend

 Patrick gave Laura beautiful roses.


Laura was given beautiful roses by Patrick               Beautiful roses were given to Laura by Patrick

5.  Passive Voice with modal verbs is formed according to the same general formula:

modal verb + (to) be + Participle II

                   e.g.  Mary must type the report at once.

                           The report must be typed at once.

                           We should not let the children watch TV late at night.