Практична граматика англійської мови для першокурсників. Частина II: Навчально-методичний посібник з граматики, страница 20


Formation:  have/ has + been + Present Participle

e.g.  I have been washing up since morning. – Have you been listening to music all this time? – No haven’t been listening as the radio is broken.

Present Perfect Continuous is used:

1.  Present Perfect Continuous is used to put emphasis on the duration of an action, which started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with time expressions such as for, since, all morning/day/week, etc.

e.g. Sarah has been picking vegetables for two hours. (She started picking vegetables two hours ago and she is still picking them now.)

I have been learning to drive since September.

2.  Present Perfect Continuous is also used for an action which started and finished in the past and lasted for some time. The result of the action is visible in the present.

e.g.  He is dirty. He has been playing football. (He is no longer playing football, but the fact that his clothes are dirty is visible now.)

                       Have you been crying? Your eyes are red and swollen.

Note:With the verbs to feel (have a particular emotion), to live, to work and to learn Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous can be used with no difference in meaning.

e.g. He has felt/ has been feeling unwell all morning.

3.  Present Perfect Continuous is also used in clauses of time and condition for an action, which will be in progress for some time before a certain moment in the future,

e.g.  I’m sure she’ll get used to our way of life after she has been staying with us for a couple of weeks.

4.  Present Perfect Continuous is used to express anger, annoyance or irritation,

e.g.  Who has been reading my business papers and misplaced them? (The speaker is irritated.)

5.  Both Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous are used with the following time expressions (adverbial modifiers of time):

  • How long…?

e.g. How long have you known Jack? 

                                How long have you been learning English?

  • for (duration)

e.g. I have known Jack for five years.

                              I have not seen Emily for a long time.

                             She has been working here for twenty years.

  • since (starting point)

e.g. They have been married since last April.

                                We have been living here since 1980. 

                                 I have not talked to Ann since last Sunday.

  • lately /recently

e.g. Have you seen any good films lately/recently?

                               She has been going out a lot lately/ recently.

**TASK 27.  Fill in the gaps with the words from the box below. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.   

recently                      since                yet                  for                   always            ever   

already                       so far             just                  How long…?

  1.  Has Tom finished his exams ________? - No. He finishes them next Thursday.
  2.  ________ has Janet been working at the hospital? - She has been working there ________ she left school.
  3. How are you finding your new job? - Great. I haven't had any problems ________.
  4. Is John at home, please? - No, I'm afraid he's ________ gone out.
  5. Have you been waiting long? - Yes, I've been here ________ two hours.
  6. Has Martin ________ been to Spain? - No, I don't think so.
  7. Have you spoken to Matthew ________? - Yes. I phoned him last night.
  8. Can you do the washing-up for me, please? - Don't worry. Mike has ________ done it.
  9. Lucy has ________ been musical, hasn't she? - Yes, she started playing the piano when she was five years old.
  10.  Shall we go to that new restaurant tonight? - Yes. I have ________ been there. It's really nice.
  11.  Your dog's been barking ________ three hours! - I'm sorry. I'll take him inside.

12. Have you finished reading that book ________? - No, I've ________ started it.