**TASK 45. John is writing a love letter to Carla. You can read it below. Use the words in brackets in the right tense form. Sometimes there is more than one variant possible.
My darling Carla,
It _________ (to be) so long since you _________ (to go) away. I _________ (to mark off) each day on the calendar, and it's already sixty-three! Last night I _________ (to look) at the moon, and _________ (to wonder) if you _________ (to look) at it too.
All our friends _________ (to ask) me when you will be back. They _________ (to try) to cheer me up because they say I always look so sad. 'This morning, while I _________ (to shave), the postman _________ (to ring) the doorbell, and I immediately _________ (to run) downstairs, because I _________ (to hope) there would be a letter from you. But once again there_________ (to be) nothing!
Since you _________ (to leave) there _________ (to not be) a single day
when I __________ (to not think) of you. One or two other girls _________ (to ask) me to take them out, but I always _________ (to refuse), I _________ (to tell) them I _________ (to promise) you that I wouldn't ever go out with anyone else. Yesterday I _________ (to listen) to the radio and I _____________ (to hear) “Sweet Emotion” – our song! I _________ (to feel) like crying. We _________ (to listen) to it the first time at Elbow's Disco, but I (to give) my heart to you long before that.
With unending love, darling,
Formation: had + Past Participle
e.g. Magda had cleaned three windows before we came. – Had she also dusted the furniture? – No, she hadn’t dusted the furniture as she had been very busy with the windows.
Past Perfect is used:
1. For an action, which happened before another past action or before a stated time in the past.
e.g. She had finished work when she met her friends for coffee. (She finished work first and only then she met her friends.)
2. For an action which finished in the past and whose result was visible in the past.
e.g. He was happy. He had signed an important contract. (The action finished in the past and its result was visible in the past too.)
3. Past perfect is the past equivalent of present perfect. Compare:
He had fixed the old armchair. It looked brand new.
(The action had fixed happened in the past. The result looked brand new was also visible in the past.)
He has fixed the old armchair. It looks brand new.
(The action has fixed happened in the past. The result looks brand new is still visible in the present.)
4. The past perfect is used with the following time expressions (adverbial modifiers of time):
before after already just for since when by ever never by the time till/until
Note: It is possible to use past perfect or past simple with before or after without any difference in meaning.
e.g. They went out after it had stopped raining. = They went out after it stopped raining.
5. Past Perfect is used with stative verbs instead of Past Perfect Continuous
e.g. James had been away for some months before his first letter came.
6. Past Perfect is preferred in negative sentences instead of Past Perfect Continuous
e.g. It had not rained for three months before that awful thunderstorm.
7. Past Perfect is used in emphatic sentences with conjunctions
Hardly …when Scarcely … when No sooner ….than
The Russian/ Ukrainian translation of such emphatic sentences is given below.
e.g. Hardly had Tom started whitewashing the fence, when his friend Jim came up to him. = Не успел Том начать белить забор, как к нему подошел его друг Джим. (Не встиг Том почати білити тин, як до нього підійшов його друг Джим.)
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