Практична граматика англійської мови для першокурсників. Частина II: Навчально-методичний посібник з граматики, страница 32

Scarcely had Cinderella tasted her ice-cream, when she heard the clock struck twelve. = Едва Золушка успела попробовать мороженое, как она услышала, что часы пробили 12. (Ледь Попелюшка встигла спробувати морозиво, як вона почула, що годинник пробив 12.)

No sooner had Thumbelina hidden the Swallow, than the Rat appeared. = Едва Дюймовочка успела спрятать Ласточку, как появилась Крыса. (Ледь Дюймовочка встигла сховати Ластівку, як з’явився Пацюк.)


Formation:  had + been + Present Participle

e.g.  Linda had been making a new dress for three hours when we came. – Had she been waiting for you? – No she had not been waiting for us as we hadn’t call.

Past Perfect Continuous is used:

1.  To put emphasis on the duration of an action which started and finished in the past before another past action or a stated time in the past, usually with since or for.

e.g. They had been looking for a house for six months before they found one they liked.

2.  For an action which lasted for some time in the past and whose result was visible in the past.

e.g. Last Friday Ron had to fly to New York. His flight was delayed. He was annoyed. He had been waitingat the airport for three hours. (He waited at the airport for three hours and the result of the action was visible in the past, too.)

3.  Past perfect continuous is the past equivalent of present perfect continuous


Past Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous

I had been driving for ten hours, so I felt exhausted. (The action had been driving lasted for some time in the past. The result felt exhausted was also visible in the past.)

I have been driving for ten hours, so I feel exhausted. (The action have been driving started in the past. The result feel exhausted is still visible in the present.)

4.  Past perfect continuous is used with the following time expressions (adverbial modifiers of time):

 for            since               how long                    before            till/until

e.g. How long had your parents been dating before they got married?

                 They had been dating for 3 years before they got married.

*TASK 46.  Choose between Past Simple and Past Perfect.

1.  Ted __________ (just/to wake up) when someone __________ (to knock) on the front door.

2.  I  __________ (to have) my bus pass in my pocket but I didn't realize it __________ (to expire).

3.By the time she __________ (to reach) the harbour, the ferry __________      (to leave).

4.  Maria     __________ (never/ to see) the ocean before she __________ (leave) her village.

5.  She __________ (to enjoy) her visit to Rome although she __________ (already/ to be) there once before.

6.  He __________ (to apologize) because he __________ (miss) the meeting.

7.  Last year Lorna __________ (to look) wonderful after she __________ (lose) a few kilos.

8.  After they __________ (to finish) their picnic, they __________      (to take) their rubbish home with them.

9.  When she __________ (to hang up) the phone she __________ (to realize) she __________ (forget) to take down the caller's name and number.

10.   Although I __________ (to set) my alarm clock, I still __________ (oversleep).

11.   He __________ (already/to pack) his suitcase before he __________           (go) to bed.

**TASK 47.  Choose between Past Simple, Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous. Some other tenses can occasionally be possible.

Part 1

1.  They __________ (to drive) for two hours before they finally __________ (to reach) their destination.

2.  Emily __________ (to write) five letters by lunchtime.

3.  The doctor __________ (to tell) John to stay in bed until he __________ (fully/ to recover).

4.  He __________ (to iron) all morning when his wife arrived.

5.  Peter __________ (already/to learn) to read and write before he __________ (to start) school.