Практична граматика англійської мови для першокурсників. Частина II: Навчально-методичний посібник з граматики, страница 18

      How often have you seen Robert this year?

·  ever, never

e.g. Have you ever been abroad? 

                        I have never eaten oysters.

·  so far

      e.g. I have sent twenty invitations so far.

                           What have you done so far?

·  lately, recently

e.g.  Peter has had a lot of good luck lately/recently.

                               I haven’t seen much of him lately/recently.


·  Yet” and “alreadyin general interrogative sentences have different meaning. “Already” is used to show surprise,

e.g. Have you already done your homework? It can’t be so! You began                              only 10 minutes ago.

      “Yet” has no emotional colouring,

e.g. Have you done your homework yet? Good. Now we can play football.

  • ‘Recently’ = not long ago = недавно
  • ‘Lately’ = recently, in the recent past = в последнее время; за последнее время
  • ‘For’ ≠ ‘during’.

           ‘During’ is used to say ‘when’ something happened and is used with past tenses,

            e.g.  It rained all Monday but stopped raining during the night.

                  Paul was ill for a week and during that time he didn’t eat anything.

      ‘For’ answers the question ‘how long?’ and can be used with all tenses,

e.g.  I’m going to stay in Kiev for 3 weeks. (present continuous)

                               I stayed in Kiev for 3 weeks last year. (past indefinite)

                               I have stayed in Kiev for 3 weeks already. (present perfect)

                               I have been staying in Kiev for 3 weeks already. (present perfect continuous)

                               I had stayed in Kiev for 3 weeks before moving to Lviv. (past perfect)

How long will you stay in Kiev? – I’m not sure. Probably, I will stay for 3 weeks. (future indefinite)

*/**TASK 24.  Fill in “for” or “since” in the sentences below.

*Part 1.

  1. I have lived in this village ______ 20 years ______ I was born.
  2. It has been raining ______hours ______ morning. I wish it would stop.
  3. My father has been the manager of this firm ______ I remember myself.
  4. ______ I moved to Kharkiv, I have been much happier.
  5. Have you been waiting ______ a long time? - I have been waiting for you ______ four o'clock.
  6. She hasn't bought a new coat ______ three years.
  7. Karen has been on the phone ______ I came home.

**Part 2.

Cleaning the attic, Mr. Leighton found some of his old diaries. He is reading them and speaking to himself.

            ‘Hm, I moved to Horton in 1965 when I got married. It means that I have lived in this town ______ (1) twenty-two years. My wife last saw her older sister Sarah, when she went to Australia. It means that they haven’t seen each other ______ (2)  1970.

My father started collecting coins when he retires. Oh, my! He has been collecting them ______ (3) 17 years.

My mother stopped driving her car when her eyesight failed six years ago. She hasn’t driven ______ (4) she almost crashed her car against a tree.

My daughter Jan has been dating her boy-friend ______ (5) she met him at her first year at university. She also hasn’t eaten meat ______ (6) that time as her future husband is a vegetarian.

My son Len began to wear glasses eight years ago when he started having severe headaches. Poor boy, he has been wearing them ______ (7) his sixth form.

I bought my present car when I changed my job. Oh, I have had it ______ (8) more than 15 years. It’s high time to change it, I think.

My gosh, I’ve been reading these old diaries ______ (9) already three hours ______ (10) I found this old chest here. My wife will kill me!

**TASK 25.  Ivor and Sarah are discussing their travel plans. Complete their conversation by using the correct present perfect forms of the verbs in brackets, and putting the necessary adverbs in their correct places. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. Choose among “already, yet, just, ever, never”.

Ivor:    Sarah, you _________ (to think) about our next trip?