Явище трансформації в перекладі англомовних текстів у галузі медицини, страница 32

·  The principal of the work is ascertainment of linguistic mechanisms in the course of translation of medical texts from English into Ukrainian. 

Theoretical importance of the study is some contribution to translation science, and to translation teaching methods as typology of terms and ways of their conveying are presented.

Practical importance of the obtained results is that the obtained materials and results can be used to teach such a discipline as theory and practice of translation in foreign languages departments, and can also be used when translating, in technical institutes of higher education, and when writing term, bachelor papers and master's theses. Besides that, theoretical part of the paper can be used as a textbook. The obtained results can be used to determine and study terminological difficulties of translation in the future.

ДОДАТОК А                            Оригінал тексту



The immune system is diverse and complicated, with specialized cells and structures that defend the body against invasion of harmful organisms or chemical tox­ins. The blood is an important part of this protective sys­tem. Although the immune system and blood are distinct entities, they're closely related. For example, their cells share a common origin in the bone marrow, and the im­mune system uses the bloodstream to transport its com­ponents. Special cells located in the bone marrow, called pluripotential stem cells, develop into immune system and blood cells through a process called hematopoiesis.  Some stem cells destined to produce im­mune system cells serve as sources of lympho­cytes {a type of white blood cell (WBC)}, where­as others develop into phagocytes (cells that en­gulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris). Those that become lymphocytes are differentiated to become either B cells (which mature in the bone marrow) or T cells (which travel to the thymus and mature there). B cells and T cells are distributed throughout the lymphoid organs, especially the lymph nodes and spleen. In the thymus (a lymph structure located in the mediastinum), T cells undergo a process called T-cell education, in which the cells are ‘trained’ to recognize other cells from the same body (self cells) and distinguish them from all other cells (nonself cells). The term lymphoid is used to refer to immune system organs and tissues because they're all involved in some way in the growth, development, and dissemination of lymphocytes (or WBCs).

Chapter 2.    LYMPH NODES

The small, kidney-shaped lymph nodes contain lymphat­ic tissue and are located along a network of lymphatic channels. They release lymphocytes, the primary cells of the immune system, and help remove and destroy antigens circulating in the blood and lymphatic vessels. Each lymph node is surrounded by a fibrous capsule that extends trabeculae (bands of connective tissue) into the node. When lymph fluid enters the node, it's filtered through sinuses before draining into the single exit vessel. The filtration process removes bacteria and other foreign bodies or particles, including malignant cells.

Another function of lymph nodes is phagocytosis, the destruction of invading cells or particles, lymphatic tissue is also the site of final maturation for lymphocytes that migrate from the bone marrow.

Lymph nodes are classified according to their locations, including:

·  axillary — underarm and upper chest

·  cervical — neck

·  inguinal — groin area

·  popliteal — behind the knee

·  submandibular — floor of the mouth and lower jaw.


Lymphatic fluid (also lymph fluid or lymph) is a transparent, usually slightly yellow liquid found within the lymphatic vessels. It’s collected  from all parts of the body and returned to the blood after filtration in the lymph nodes.