· The WBC differential evaluates the type, number, and condition of WBCs present in the blood. WBCs are classified as one of five major types of leukocytes — neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes — and the percentage of each type is determined in this test.
· Western blot test detects the presence of specific viral proteins.
Chapter 14. PATCH AND SCRATCH ALLERGY TESTS
Patch and scratch allergy tests evaluate the immune system's ability to respond to known allergens, which are applied to hairless areas of the patient's body.
In patch testing, a dilute solution of each allergen is placed directly on the skin and covered with gauze. In 48 to 72 hours, the appearance of redness, vesicles, itching, or swelling shows a positive reactions. Scratch tests introduce allergens into a scratched area on the patient's skin with a special tool or needle. Test sites are examined 30 to 40 minutes later and compared with a control site; redness, itching, or swelling are considered positive reactions. Intradermal skin tests evaluate the patient's immune system by injecting recall antigens (antigens to which the patient may have been previously sensitized) into the superficial skin layer with a needle and syringe or a sterile four-pronged lancet.
Chapter 15. LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE DISORDERS
Because of their complexity, the processes involved in host defense and immune response may malfunction. When the body's defenses are exaggerated, misdirected, or either absent or depressed, the result may be a hypersensitivity disorder, autoimmunity, or immunodeficiency, respectively. This section provides terminology associated with lymphatic and immune system disorders.
Chapter 16. HYPERSENSITIVITY DISORDERS
An exaggerated or inappropriate immune response may lead to various hypersensitivity disorders, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, anaphylaxis, atopic dermatitis, latex allergy, and blood transfusion reactions.
Chapter 17. ASTHMA
Asthma is a chronic, reactive airway disorder leading to episodes of airway obstruction with bronchospasms, increased mucus secretion, and mucosal swelling.
Here are a few types of asthma:
· Acute asthma is an attack that can begin either dramatically with severe symptoms or slowly with gradual symptoms.
· Extrinsic asthma results from sensitivity to pollen, animal dander, mold, or other sensitizing substances.
· Intrinsic asthma is diagnosed when no extrinsic allergen can be identified.
· Status asthmaticus is a persistent, intractable asthma attack that can lead to acute respiratory failure.
Chapter 18. ALLERGIC RHINITIS
Allergic rhinitis is a reaction to airborne (inhaled) allergens. The resulting runny nose, itching, nasal obstruction, and congestion can be seasonal like hay fever, or year-round like perennial allergic rhinitis.
Chapter 19. ANAPHYLAXIS
Anaphylaxis is a dramatic, acute reaction marked by the sudden onset of rapidly progressive hives and respiratory distress. It can be a life-threatening situation if treatment isn't initiated immediately.Chapter 20. ATOPIC DERMATITIS
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin disorder characterized by superficial skin inflammation and intense itching.
Chapter 21. LATEX ALLERGY
Latex allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction to products that contain natural latex, which is derived from the sap of a rubber tree. Hypersensitivity reactions to latex range from local dermatitis to life-threatening anaphylactic reaction.
Chapter 22. BLOOD TRANSFUSION REACTIONS
Mediated by immune or nonimmune factors, a transfusion reaction happens during or after the administration of blood components. Symptoms can be mild (fever and chills) or severe (acute renal failure or complete vascular collapse and death), depending on the amount of blood transfused, the type of reaction, and the patient's general health.
Hemolytic reactions follow transfusions of mismatched blood. When this occurs, RBCs clump together and break down, leading to kidney damage.
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