Allergic reactions to transfused blood are fairly common and only occasionally serious. Patients may experience transient hives, itching, chills, and fever. Symptoms resolve quickly when the transfusion is stopped. Febrile nonhemolytic reactions, the most common type of reaction, apparently develop when antibodies in the patient's plasma attack antigens on lymphocytes, granulocytes, or plasma cells of the transfused blood.
Chapter 23. AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS
Autoimmune disorders occur when a misdirected immune response causes the body's defenses to become self-destructive. Here are some types of autoimmune disorders:
· Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, usually progressive, inflammatory disease that primarily affects the sacroiliac, apophyseal, and costovertebral joints and adjacent soft tissue.
· Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease that primarily attacks peripheral joints and surrounding muscles, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels.
· Scleroderma is a diffuse connective tissue disease characterized by fibrotic, degenerative, and occasionally inflammatory changes in the skin, blood vessels, synovial membranes, skeletal muscles, and internal organs.
· Sjogren's syndrome, the second most common rheumatoid disorder, is marked by decreased secretions from the lacrimal and salivary glands.
· Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the connective tissue. It affects multiple organ systems, is characterized by remissions and exacerbations, and can be fatal.
· Vasculitis includes a broad spectrum of disorders characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessels.
Chapter 24. IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISORDERS
In immunodeficiency, the immune system is absent or depressed, resulting in increased susceptibility to infection. Also known as AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome causes progressive damage to the body's immune response and gradual destruction of cells — including T cells. The retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS.
DiGeorge syndrome is a congenital aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus that's caused by a missing gene on chromosome 22. This leads to a deficiency of T lymphocytes and compromises cell-mediated immunity. Iatrogenic immunodeficiency is a deficiency in the immune response that occurs as a complication of chemotherapy and other medical treatment.
Chapter 25. CANCERS
Several types of cancer can affect the lymphatic and immune system:
· Hodgkin's disease is a neoplastic disease characterized by painless, progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid tissue.
· Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular malignancy characterized by multiple red or purple macules, papules, or nodules. Initially apparent on the skin or mucous membrane, these lesions may spread to such internal organs and structures as the GI tract, the lungs, or lymph nodes.
· Malignant lymphoma is a group of malignant diseases originating in lymph glands and other lymphoid tissue.
Chapter 26. TREATMENTS
A variety of methods are used to combat disorders of the lymphatic and immune system, including drug therapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and bone marrow transplantation.
Here's a list of drugs commonly used to treat immune and lymphatic disorders:
· Antilymphocyte serum, or antithymocyte globulin, is an anti-T-cell antibody that reduces the number and function of T cells. This suppresses cell-mediated immunity. The drug is used to prevent rejection of tissue grafts or transplants.
· Corticosteroids are adrenocortical hormones widely used to treat immune disorders because of their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects. These drugs stabilize the vascular membrane, blocking tissue infiltration by neutrophils and monocytes and thus inhibiting inflammation.
Чтобы распечатать файл, скачайте его (в формате Word).
Ссылка на скачивание - внизу страницы.