Lower management. The term 'lower management' includes assistant foremen, foremen, general foremen, and office supervisors. The word 'supervisors' is the generic term meaning a member of lower management. They instruct employees in the methods of performing their jobs, assign and reassign employees to specific jobs and tasks, and take prompt action to overcome delays and breakdowns in the production process.
Middle management. In the multiplant corporation the term 'middle management' includes supervisory and executive personnel in production, sales, engineering, accounting, and other functional fields both within the plants and at corporate headquarters. Middle managers transmit and sharpen up information and orders from top management.
Top Management. In the business corporation this includes the president, vice-president, and major department executives. In the large organisation it covers the toptwo levels and occasionally the third level as well. Top executives make and participate in the making of major plans and policies. They are concerned with long-ranee plans and projects. Group decision making through boards, committees, and conferences is common. Considerable time is devoted to deliberation and reading of reports The world of the top manager involves a lot of contact with the public and outside groups, such as government officials, trade association personnel, and other business executives. Business travel tends to be rather frequent. Authority and responsibility in monetary and personnel matters are very great and actions are only checked by higher authority (for example, the board of directors) at relatively long intervals. There is a tendency to be insulted from the problems, needs, and views rank-and-file and even of first-line supervisors.
Skills of Managers
If one studies the day-to-day activities of a manager, it will be found that he devotes a high percentage of his time to interacting with other people. In preparing plans he must consult his colleagues and subordinates. In organising he must work closely with his subordinates to define and guide the relationship among them. The manager accomplish results through and with others. He motivates, persuades, and influences. At times he conducts and at other times he participates as a member in decision-making conferences. The practising manager must be skilled in the art of human relations. He spends a great deal of his time communicating with others mostly through face-to-face contact.
Management involves accomplishing results through other people. The skilled space technology manager does not design a spacecraft himself. The manufacturing executive does not build automobiles himself. The college president does not teaching. The role of manager is to assemble the best work team he can obtain and then motivate and guide that team to accomplish agreed-upon objectives.
The essence of management is the activity of working with people to accomplish results. It involves organising, motivating, leading, training, communicating with, and co-ordinating others.
Now the reader should not jump to the conclusion that the successful manager need only possess knowledge and skills in the fields of personnel management and human relations. He must also be trained in other fields, such as the technology of his particular industry, management science and administration, and personal communication skills. In addition, the modern-day executive must have knowledge of the economic, social and political environment in which he lives and works. The degree of competence a manager must have in these areas is determined primarily by the circumstances of his job, his company, level in organisation, and geographical location Notwithstanding these other areas of competence demanded of the manager, his world is primarily one of human interaction.
Skills of Managers
Certain general skills are needed for effective managerial performance, regardless of the level of the manager in the hierarchy of the organisation. However, the mix of skills differs depending on the level of the manager in the organisation. These skills are illustrated in the Figure. The figure indicates the basic skills — human, technical, and conceptual — needed by all managers.
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