Our institute. We study anatomy. How i got my certificate of health. The working day of a district doctor. At the chemist’s. Classes in therapy. At the surgical department, страница 16

10.  The surgeons directed the young woman to the in – patient department to undergo an operation immediately.


1.  The surgeons operated on these patients.

2.  The doctor had determined dull heart sounds.

3.  The surgeon on duty has arrested a profuse abdominal bleeding.

4.  The traumatologist sets fractured bones.

5.  The surgeon will perform the operation for appendicitis.

6.  The stomach ulcer had caused a profuse abdominal bleeding.

7.  The nurse is dressing the patient’s surgical wound now.

8.  They have stuck labels on the bottles.

9.  The nurse was sterilizing the instruments at 10 o’clock yesterday.


1.  Why were the students eager to attend their classes in Surgery?

2.  What did the students do when they came to the reception ward?

3.  What was the students’ duty while working in the reception ward?

4.  Why did the students have to be very careful in handling the patients?

5.  What complications may be caused by acute appendicitis?

6.  Why was it necessary to remove the appendix immediately?

7.  What did the students learn in the traumatological department?

8.  How were the fractured bones of the extremities treated?

9.  Who assisted doctors in the dressing - room?

10.  How did the students prepare their hands before changing the bandages?

11.  What did the doctor do after having washed the edges of the wound?

12.  What was administered into the wound?

13.  Who was allowed to introduce a fresh outer bandage?

14.  Whom did the ambulance bring that day?

15.  What was the matter with the patient?

16.  When will the students be allowed to be present at the operations?

17.  Is it easy to be a surgeon?


1.  Кто будет оперировать этого больного?

2.  Завтра лечащий врач выпишет двоих пациентов, которые были в тяжёлом состоянии.

3.  Больного привезли на каталке в перевязочную.

4.  Меня интересуют способы лечения переломов конечностей.

5.  Скорая помощь доставила в больницу мужчину с сильным абдоминальным кровотечением.

6.  Моему другу удалили аппендикс 3 года тому назад.

7.  Медсестра удалила тампон, который был пропитан гноем.

8.  Ему придётся лечь на операцию.

9.  Больной перенёс операцию хорошо. Сейчас он поправляется и чувствует себя хорошо.

10.   Рана была такой глубокой, что вся повязка была пропитана кровью.

11.  Кровотечение было остановлено и состояние больного сейчас удовлетворительное.

12.  Нужно было вправить кость и наложить гипс для иммобилизации.

13.  Врач ввёл раствор антибиотиков в хирургическую рану.

14.  Трудно стать хирургом, но ещё труднее стать хорошим хирургом.


            The heart is a hollow muscular organ. One septum divides the heart into two chambers. Each chamber has the atrium and the ventricle. The left cardiac chamber discharges blood received from the pulmonary circulation through the aorta to the systemic circulation. The right heart chamber discharges blood received from the systemic circulation to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries.

The valves are at the entrance and exit of each ventricle. The heart contracts during the whole period of life. Cardiac arrest means death. In the adult the heart usually makes from 70 to 75 beats (contractions) per minute. The amount of blood discharged from the heart during a single contraction is called the systolic volume.

The heart wall consists of three layers: the epicardium, the myocardium and the endocardium. The epicardium and the endocardium consist of connective tissue. The cardiac muscle or the myocardium produces the contractions of the heart.

The heart is lying in the cardiac sac or the pericardium.

The cardiovascular system consists of three groups of vessels – arteries, veins and capillaries.