Motivation. Psychologists who study the subject of human behavior and personality generally are convinced that all behavior of human, страница 4

Enlarging and Enriching the Job

A way of delegating authority with responsibility is to give employees new tasks and new work experiences and to seek ways by which the basic nature of the job may be made more meaningful. Employees tire of doing the same old routine and monotonous chores day in and day out. Supervisors should seek ways to enlarge the sSope and'importance of each job. This can sometimes be accomplished by rotating employees so that everyone has his or her fair share of the^hallenging as well as the routine jobs. Supervisors often are prtffiefo assign most of the difficulfjobs to their key or best employees and td assign the dull jobs to those employees who are marginal or weak: this can be defeating in the long run. It is preferablefor the supervisor to provide opportunities for employees to find challenging and interesting work experiences within the''realistic framework of the department's'operation. Sometimes this can be accomplished by committee assignments, special problem-solving tasks, and other unique experiences which go beyond just the routine5 performance of day-to-day work. Job enlargement and job enrichment projects can do.much toiiiaprove individual and group motive

tion and morale.

Participative Management

One of the most effective ways to build a sen$ of employee'*' pride, teamwork, and mo^vatien is for the supervisor to seek advice, suggestions, 4nd information from employees concerning ways in which work should be performed and problems should be solved. Many experiments in group decision making have indicated that work groups can1 help the supervisor In improving decision-making. This does not mean turning over all decisions to employees; nor does it mean just maMng employees "think'^hat they are participating in decisions. Rather, it means that the supervisor should earnestly seek employee opinion whenever possible, and be willing to be influenced by the suggestions and even criticisms which employees may offer. Where employees feel that they are really part of a team and that they have a significant influence Шthe decisions that are made, they are more likely to accept the decisions and to seek new solutions to future difficult problems.

Some companies and organizations have found that formal suggestion systems can be a definite help in this direction. Suggestion systems provide monetary rewards to employees for suggestions that are received and accepted; but the monetary reward is only part of the overall "compensation.". Employees like to have their suggestions heard and answered; to rftkny employees, just the mere fact that a suggestion has been accepted is worth more to them than the monetary award that is forthcoming. If supervisors believe that the insta-lation of a formal suggestion plan in their companies could be пр fill, they should propose this idea to higher management or me soraiel Department.

Performance Appraisal through Management b Objectives

One of the most significant developments in motivational proaches in recent years is one which has been called management by objectives or management by results. Stated simply, it involves (a) the setting, within certain limits, of performance targets by individual employees rather than having the targets or standards arbitrarily set by supervision and higher management, and (b) having employees initially appraise themselves in the context of their own objectives. Some companies have very elaborate management by objectives (or MBO) systems, which extend from top management all the way down to the employee level. Although this approach may not be practicable in some work situations (for example, on the assembly line), many supervisors in numerous types of organizations can. use this approach if they really are interested in trying to build better performance and motivation among employees.