Motivation. Psychologists who study the subject of human behavior and personality generally are convinced that all behavior of human, страница 3

2.  Because of this characteristic? dislike of work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed,and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives.

3.  The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and wants security above all.

Theory Y

1. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

I %. External control and thereat of punishment are not the only means of bringing about effort toward organizational objectives. Man will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which he is committed.              tm

3< Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.                                       „™dkions

4.  The average human being learns, under proper conditions,

not only to accept, but to seek responsibility.

5. The capacity to exercise a high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in,Hae solution of organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in4he population.

6. Under the conditions of modem industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized.

It is obvious that the contrast in attitudes and approach is extreme. Yet few supervisors are at the extreme end oЈ either Theory X or Theory Y, most supervisors probably are somewhere in between. The supervisory problem becomes a matter of knowing people, recognizing their needs, and th^implementing either a Theory X, Theory Y, or middle approach depending upon the circumstances involved.

Supervisors who are Theory X oriented have a basicallyJimited view of people and their capabilities. They feelihat individuals must be strictly controlled, closely supervised, and motivated on the basis of money, discipline, and authority. Theory X supervisorsj^elieve that the key to employee motivation is in the proper implementation of approaches designed to satisfy the lower level needs of people.

Theory Y supervisors, however, have a much higher opinion of the capabilities and possibilities of people^ They feel that if the proper approaches and conditions can be implemented, people w$l exer^se self-direction and self-control toward the accomplishment of worthwhile objectives. They feel that management's objectives and activities should fit, into the scheme of each employee's own particular set of needs. Therefore, Theory Y managers believe that the higher level needs of people are more important in terms of each employee's own personality and self-development.


There are no simple "cookbook" rules which a supervisor can implement as techniques designed to achieve high motivation and excellent performance. Human beings are much too complex for, any simple set of "do's" and "don'ts" for supervision. Although leadership skills can be learned and developed, there are no simple rules or checklists that will apply in all situations and for all people.

However, there are preferred ways of supervising and managing people winch can result in better degrees of self-motrya#on and job performance. What can be suggested are several premises andapproaches which are consonant with what is known about people their needs, and their motivations. All of these approaches will be discussed at greater length throughout this book.

Delegating Authority With Responsibility

A basic principle of good management is that individuals should be given the authority which is necessary for them to carry out their assigned responsibilities4 and tasks. This principle is also one of the most important approaches by which supervisors can build positive motivation among employees.The supervisor should delegate as much authority as the employee needs to carry out assignments. Many employees will be willing to accept (and perhaps even welcome) additional duties, challenges, and opportunities to contribute if the supervisor is willing to allow them to have the necessary authority by which they may carry out ihese duties. Yet supervisors often are afraid to give employees additional authority, since they fear that employees will make decisions or do things which could embarrass or hurt the supervisor or the departmental operation. This is a danger that must be recognized, but it is a small one in comparison with the possibilities of attaining better performance. Of course, good judgment must prevail on the part of the supervisor concernmg which employees can handle additional responsibilities and authority yet the supervisor should constantly seek ways to expand rather than limit the scope of activities of subordinates.