Causes of damage to cargo.
Considerable damage to cargo may result if due care is not paid to its handling. Lack of care (беззаботность) at port of loading may result in damage. Sometimes the effect of damage is not immediately apparent(видна), it may begin to show during the voyage. The following are the examples of damage owing to(из-за) bad handling: 1) Inefficient(негодная) and improper slinging(стропить). Heavy cases should not be slung with light cases. Canvas slings should be used for bagged goods rather than for rope slings. For very small packages wire net slings are preferable. In all cases of slinging due attention should be given to the weight of the cargo in the sling. Excessive loads may result in damage to packages, lifting gear, sides of the slings.2) The use of cargo hooks.This practice is a frequent source of damage. The hooks must not be used with any bales(кипа) of cotton, bagged(мешок) cargo and drums(бочка) of liquids. 3) Crushing. Damage to cargo from crushing is mainly due to lack of care in stowing, exactly including incorrect use of wooden dunnage(деревяная подстилка), unsuitable(неподобающее) space allocation(размещение) of cargo, insufficient attention paid to the type of cargo being loaded. It is not recommended to stow heavy bulky packages over and with fragile(хрупкий) packages - this may cause them to collapse, but light packages should be stowed on top of each other.4)Cargo gear. Much damage to cargo results from slings contacting with hatch-coamings(крышка комингса), bulwarks(фальшборт) and obstructions(заграждение) within a hold. Acceleration and retardation(замедление) of winch speed cause breakage of packages (due to careless winch work).The following are some of the more important precautions(предосторожность) which must be observed with all types of derrick rigging(оснащение) and cargo gear: All gear including derricks and attachments(прикрепления) must be regularly lubricated(смазывать). All wires and ropes must be in good condition. They should be free from frays(износ) or brakes, not deformed.
Cargo Officer's duties.
The Cargo Officer is directly charge with supervising every stage of the cargo operations and he must prepare a number of documents which are made out both before and during loading.
He must do the following:
1. To make out the NOTICE OF SHIP'S READINESS TO LOAD signed by the Master;
2. To make out the CARGO PLAN, which must be approved by the Master;
3. Must instruct foremаn and stevedores as to the proper stowage of goods in the ship's cargo compartments and spaces; 4. To take measures for preventing any damage either to the cargo or to the vessel due to negligent(халатный) handling; 5. To arrange careful tally of the goods taken on board; 6. To make out a MATE'S RECEIPT for each shipment of cargo on which, in case of short-shipment or damaged condition of goods or defects in their packing, he should add appropriate remarks or clauses to protect the vessel against claims for loss or damage.
Procedure of discharging.
Correct delivery of the cargo carried on board the ship to the Consignees is one of main responsibilities of the Master and his Cargo Officer. In compliance with the Charter Party the Master must duly inform the Agent in the port of discharge of his vessel's ETA, kind of cargo on board and sometimes the Stowage Plan. Having received the above information the Agent is to make preliminary(предварительный) arrangements for discharging the delivered cargo. He notifies the Port Authorities and the Consignees of the vessel's arrival, secures a berth, obtains labour and cargo-handling facilities. Before discharging the Master must make out the NOTICE OF SHIP'S READINESS TO DISCHARGE and tender on it the Agent.
Discharging is performed(выполняется) under the supervision of a stevedore and it is performed by dockers usually headed by foreman. When the ship is ready to unload the Cargo Officer gives a Cargo Plan and Bill of Lading to the stevedore. According to these documents the Cargo Officer begins unloading the ship. The crewmen get ready winches and cranes, derricks, shackles, blocks and other equipment. All these appliances should be preliminary inspected for possible signs of wear.
Lorries(грузовики) deliver cargoes to the warehouses. Sometimes the cargoes may be unloaded directly from the ship’s holds into lighters. If there are some heavy lifts in the holds they may be unloaded by heavy lift cranes, heavy derricks, gantries or even by floating cranes. The ORIGINAL BILL OF LADING is a document against which goods are most often delivered. The CLEAN BILL OF LADING is a document which is used if the Receiver takes all cargo to his complete satisfaction.
The Master may deliver cargo only after the freight and all other charges have been paid. In case of short-delivery or any claims on the part of the Receiver, the Agent is to arrange immediate check-up on the cargo to protect the vessel's interests.
Procedure of loading.
Reception(прием) and stowage of cargo on board the ship is one of the main responsibilities of the Master and his Cargo Officer. The latter is directly charge of every stage of cargo operations and he must prepare a number of cargo documents before and during the loading. Before loading the Shipper must receive the NOTICE OF SHIP'S READINESS TO LOAD through the Agent made out by the Cargo Officer and signed by the Master. The special cargo surveyors are invited before and after loading to inspect the holds and stow and to certify that all statutory(установленые) requirements have been met.
The cargo is taken on board in accordance with the CARGO PLAN which is made out by the Cargo Officer or the Agent, and should always be approved by the Master prior to loading. The ship's safety in voyage, that is her stability and seaworthiness must be taken into consideration in planning the stowage of goods in the ship's spaces. There is other consideration as to safety of cargo that is prevention various kinds of cargoes from damage during transportation.
The Cargo Officer supervises the whole of the process of loading. He must instruct foremen and stevedores as to proper stowage of goods in the ship's compartments and spaces. For each shipment of cargo actually received on board he makes out a MATE'S RECEIPT on which, in case of short-shipment or damaged condition of goods or defects in their packing, he should add appropriate remarks and clauses to protect the vessel against claims for loss or damage.
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