Causes of damage to cargo. Cargo Officer's duties. Procedure of discharging. Procedure of loading. Types of cargoes and their packing. Survival equipment and life craft. Emergency organization on board the ship., страница 3

   Life-rafts may be inflatable or rigid. They are launched by free fall method or float-free method using arrangements.

   Rescue boats are mainly used in the case of man overboard and in the case of abandoning(оставление) the vessel to gather and group life-rafts. 

Emergency organization on board the ship.

The ship's emergency organization comprises(включает) all members of the ship's company. The E.O. is centered on an emergency squad(група). The E.S. consists of selected officers and ratings. The E.S. takes actions necessary and possible to deal with an emergency. Selected personnel are assigned(определяет) to special duties. On sounding the emergency signal the E.S. should muster at the emergency headquarters, from which position they collect their equipment.

   The Chief Officer takes charge of tackling emergency outside of the engine room. The Second Engineer takes charge of the emergency within the machinery spaces.

   The final composition of the E.S. is acknowledged by the master.

   The support(поддерживающая) squad is in charge of a deck officer. The support squad must supply extra equipment to the E.S., provide extra manpower(раб. Сила), form additional hose parties, conduct(управлять) boundary cooling(охлаждение) and boundary starvation(голод), prepare lifeboats and life-rafts.   First aid and provisions squad consists of all members of the catering staff(снабжение составом)who is in charge of Chief Steward. The main duties are the transportation and care of casualties(пострадавший) and the supply of extra water and blankets(шерстяное одеяло) to the lifeboats. The emergency headquarters is established(установлены) in the accommodation(помещение) which cannot be cut off(отрезаных) by fire and smoke and gives reasonable access to upper deck, engine room, accommodation. This is mustering position for the E.S.

   Before leaving the port the master allocates(распределяет) emergency stations. These stationsand duties are recorded on the Muster List

                        Obtaining Radio Medical Advice.

At the open sea situations very often arise when immediate medical advice may be required. Nowadays it is possible to realize such advice(консультация) by means of GMDSS equipment.

   ITU list of Radio determination & Special Service Stations must be included into the ship's Radio documentation in accordance with the Radio Service Regulations. This publication lists commercial & government radio stations that provide free medical message service to vessels. These massages should be prefixed(ставиться впереди) with "DH MEDICO". They are delivered to RCCs, hospitals or other facilities. RCCs forward these massages to SAR services which provided either medical radio advice or immediate evacuation of the casualty. SAR personnel contains well-qualified doctors trained in accordance with special program for medical treatment & evacuation at sea.

   There are several enterprises in some states which provide subscription & pay-per-use medical advice to vessels at sea. The best known medical advisory service is Centro International Radio-Medico in Rome, Italy. It provides round the clock medical assistance & advice service by radio for sailors of any nationality anywhere on the high seas. The service is free. This center has arrangements to transport the sick or injured by air & sea.

   As for the United States the Inmarsat system is available for this purpose. The massage may be addressed to the US Coast Guard RCCs. There are two such stations: one of them covers the Atlantic Ocean Area & another one covers the Pacific Ocean Area. Massages should be prefixed  "MEDICO" & signed by the master. These RCCs forward the massage received through the Inmarsat to the medical facilities for action.  After massages have been forwarded to hospitals or other medical facilities, the suitable(соответств) instructions will be transmitted to the vessel. Massage must include the following information: - routine particulars about the vessel  -routine particulars about the patient  -particulars of the illness or history of the injury  -results of examination of the ill person.      

Separation, dunnage, lashing.

   Dunnage is the material used for protecting cargoes from possible damage. Correct dunnaging of cargoes is very important. The main purposes of dunnaging are the following:-to protect it from contact with water bilges(трюмная), leakage(утечка) from other cargo, from the ship's side or from double bottom tanks;-to protect it from contact with moisture(подмочка) or sweat(запотевание);-to prevent chafage of packages;   Dunnage must be dry, clean, sound and free from stains(пятно) which may contaminate(пачкать) the cargo in contact with it.

   The use of dunnage retaining(сохраняет) the odour(запах) of a previous(предшествующий) cargo should be avoided(избегать). The types of dunnage materials are as follows: boards(доска), battens(рейка), cardboard(картон), hardwood(тверд. Древесина), tarpaulins(брезент), mats, plywood(фанера). The selection of dunnage for some cargoes depends on a kind of a cargo.

   Dunnage from wide boards is preferable to small bagged cargo. It prevents the sagging(оседание) of the bags between the boards.

   A general cargo may be dunnaged almost with any types of wooden boards or battens provided they fulfil(удовлетворяющ) the requirements of clean lineless. The board or battens should be selected in accordance with the sizes of the packages.

   General cargo due to different shapes(форма) and sizes will break up and misplace laid dunnage. Therefore it is necessary to have a liberal supply of dunnage in the compartment.   Double dunnage should also be laid. The first tier(ряд) is arranged(раставлять) athwartships(поперек судна) in order to provide water courses toward the bilges and the upper tier fore and aft. 

Emergency response actions.

Anyone may initiate(начинать) an emergency by pressing the emergency alarm switch. This will bring the emergency party to the emergency headquarters and alert the remaining members of the emergency organization.

   A person having sounded the emergency alarms must also report the location and nature of the emergency to the bridge or to the emergency headquarters.   The emergency squad should muster at the emergency headquarters with the utmost(предельной) speed. The first officer to arrive at the emergency headquarters should contact the bridge to advise or enquire about the nature and location of the emergency.    In any case communications must be established with the master. On leaving the emergency headquarters, the emergency squad should use portable VHF transceivers.