Causes of damage to cargo. Cargo Officer's duties. Procedure of discharging. Procedure of loading. Types of cargoes and their packing. Survival equipment and life craft. Emergency organization on board the ship., страница 4

   Personnel assigned with special duties should proceed to their stations. The first aid and provisions squad should proceed to their muster point. The support squad should muster and await instructions.  Communications must be established between the bridge and engine room. The emergency squad must collect the necessary equipment and proceed to scene of the emergency.

Principals of stowage.

   Stowage is the placing of cargoes either in ship's hold or on her deck. The method of stowage must ensure the following:

-the preservation of crew and ship from danger of injury

-to protect the cargo from damage, loss and deterioration and to ensure its "sound delivery"

-the economy of cargo spaces that depends on the vessel's earning capacity.

   The cargo plan should be drawn up carefully. It will make distribution of cargo pieces in the holds easier and it will help to avoid cargo claims.

   While stowing the cargo the stevedore and the cargo officer should ensure the ship's stability and seaworthiness. Cargo must be stowed and fastened reliably to avoid shifting if the ship pitches and rolls during the storm. A reliable fastening the cargo prevents possible damage from chafing(трение), breaking and crushing.

  The method of stowage depends on the kind of the cargo. Light cargoes are stowed on the top of heavy ones. The stevedores and cargo officers use a term "broken stowage", which is used to indicate space which is lost and unoccupied by cargo between and round the packages, space occupied by dunnage, space at sides, ends and on top of cargo.

   The loss of space varies according to the nature of the cargo. If the vessel carries free flowing cargoes such as grain, sand, the loss is small. With bag cargo and handy cases of uniform dimensions(размеры) very full stowage is possible. If the vessel carries irregularly shaped(неправ. Форма) packages, varying in size and form such as machinery, boilers, large reels the loss of space isvery high and sometimes reaches 25 per cent.     

Messrs Murei and Company,

38 Ru....

Antwerp, Belgium.

Dear Sirs,

As stipulated in the Charter Party we were to deliver the cargo after obtain of the freight of 250,000, as cash on delivery. As you had promised that the mentioned sum would have been paid to our agents in your port by 10.00 this day, yesterday at 08.00 according to your request we commenced the loading. Today at 12.00 I received the message from our Agency that the freight had not been paid by that moment. I inform you that in such circumstances I had to stop the discharging and arrest the part of the cargo sufficient for paying the debt until the freight is paid completely. I warn you officially that if the freight is not paid until 16.00 I will use my lien upon the cargo in the warehouses to recover losses and expenses, including ship’s delay and expenses of stowage of cargo in the warehouses.

Messrs Svenson and Company,

10 Bemgatum

Stockholm, Switzerland

Dear Sirs,

I wish to draw your attention to incompetent and unqualified discharging of the cargo of …. by the stevedores of “A” Company. During the discharging of cargo of saw-timber from N1 and N2 holds yesterday, June 24, 1996, stevedores broke 2 packets of boards during stowing them into the barge. As a result the part of boards felt overboard into the dirty water, moreover, some boards were damaged by steel slings, in spite of my numerous reminding the forman did not substitute them for the ones of natural or synthetic fibers. Before falling all lots of cargo were properly marked as indicated in the Cargo Plan but having collected the boards dockers mixed boards of different labels. In view of the above I warn you that I make the above stevedoring company fully responsible for the listed damage and I refuse to accept any claims regarding shortage or shifting of the cargo. I ask you to inform the Receivers and all interested parties.

To Agnesim Maritima Company,

2 Plasa de Kaidilio,

Kartahena, Spain

Dear Sirs,

Taking into consideration possible claims on the part the Receiver, we consulted with the experienced Cargo Inspectors concerning loading containers per Bill of Lading N381/4 on deck of specialized vessel did not expose them to a greater danger comparing with the loading into the ship’s holds. The securing of the deck cargo had been checked shortly before departure of the ship by special inspector, who did not insert any violations into his act. The loss of one of the containers resulted from force major circumstances.

Messrs Andersen and Co., Ship’s Agents,

23, Norregate,

Oslo, Norway.

Dear Sirs, Re: additional loading containers.

This is to inform you that by the moment of the receiving new Cargo Plan, the loading of the preliminary stipulated number of containers had been completed. You should have informed about planning changes as earlier as it was possible. Moreover, to load additional containers and to provide sufficient stability of the vessel we will have to transfer the part of the cargo per Bill of Lading SE2115 from N3 hold to the deck of N4 hold. It will restrict our abilities to load deck cargo in the next port of call. I will have to order the additional gang of dockers for the second part of the day to prevent delay of ship’s departure planned tomorrow morning. I kindly asked you to inform me about your final decision concerning this matter promptly.

Messrs Ship’s Agents, Forest Brothers

Dear Sirs,

This is to inform you that in connection with the necessity carry out of repair on the ship, I informed the port authorities about ETA in advance and I asked to provide examination of damage and to estimate the cost of the repairing. Your representative mister Braun embarked my vessel 2 days ago to adjust about executing of the mentioned work. I also informed Mr. Braun that I required a tug to deck the ship and he promised to provide the tug duly. However our vessel remains berthed at the N5 pier still. In spite of the preliminary agreement I have to repeat my request again to put my ship into the dry dock to repair under water body of my ship. I kindly asked you as our agents in this port to take urgent measures in connection with the above to avoid the delay of the ship.