Causes of damage to cargo. Cargo Officer's duties. Procedure of discharging. Procedure of loading. Types of cargoes and their packing. Survival equipment and life craft. Emergency organization on board the ship., страница 2

After completion of loading, the Master signs the receipt for the goods taken on board. Such receipt is called BILL OF LADING. The STOWAGE PLAN and MANIFEST OF CARGO are then made out and air-mailed to the port of discharge to facilitate discharging operations (to obtain necessary labour and cargo-handling equipment such as cranes, lift-trucks, barges, railway cars).          

Types of cargoes and their packing.

      Merchant ships are designed to carry cargo. This cargo may be divided into two types: bulk cargo and general cargo. Bulk cargo consists of a single commodity(товар). This commodity is usually carried loose(неупаковано). General cargo consists of a variety of goods. These goods are packed separately. The stowage of bulk cargo presents few problems. The stowage of general cargo presents many problems, because general cargo has own type of packing and characteristics.

      Bulk cargo may be divided into liquid or dry bulk cargo. Liquid bulk cargo is carried in tankers. Most tankers are designed to carry crude(сырая) oil or its refined(очищеный) products, such as fuel oils. The oil is carried in tanks. These are connected by a system of pipes to a central manifold(трубопровод). The cargo is pumped on board at the port of loading by shore pumps. At the port of discharge the ship pumps oil ashore. Dry bulk cargo is carried in bulk carriers. Dry bulk cargo includes grain(зерно), iron-ore(желез. Руда), coal and sugar. It is loaded automatically by buckets(черпаки) on a conveyor belt system or through large tubes(труба). It is unloaded by huge grabs(ковш) on cranes or by giant suction tubes(огромн. Высас. Труба). General cargo can be divided into containerized, non-containerized and refrigerated cargo. Non-containerized cargo presents most stowage problems, because each commodity has its own type of packaging and characteristics. Goods may be in bags, bales(кипа), cases or steel drums. 

Principals of fire-fighting.

Combustion(горение) is a chemical reaction or series(серия) of reactions in which heat and light are produced. Combustion can only occur if three factors-fuel, oxygen and heat come together in the right proportions. This basic fact is illustrated by the fire triangle. Flash point is the lowest temperature at which sufficient vapour(пар) ignite if an ignition source is introduced(присутствует источник воспламен). Fire point is the lowest temperature at which the introduction of an ignition source would result in a flash followed by fire. Ignition temperature is the temperature at which a substance ignites without the introduction of an external(внешнего) ignition source.   Classification of fires:

   Class A: fires involve combustion of solid(твердый) materials such as wood, paper, cloth and some plastics with the formation of glowing embers(образование тлеющих углей). Such fires are extinguished by water. Class B: fires involve combustion of liquids such as paints, oils and spirits which may give off flammable vapours(огнеопасные испарения). Such fires are extinguished by powder(порошок). Class C: fires involve combustion of liquefied gases. Such fires give off(выделять) highly toxic products of combustion and they are extinguished by foam, powder and CO2.     Class D: fires involve combustion of metals. Such fires must be extinguished by halon and special powder.            If a fire alarm is given: the crew will assemble(собирается) at the fire stations; the fire parties assemble and carry out their task to contain(удерживать) the fire; the ship's course and speed are altered(изменять) if necessary; pumps are prepared to dispose (распространение) water; the master decides the most appropriate method to tackle the fire and this is effected by the fire officer. The fireman's outfit(снаряжать) includes protective suit, protective boots and gloves, hard hat(каска), self contained compressed air breathing apparatus, rescue line and harness(ремни безопасности), VHF radio and safety torch(фонарь).       

                        Principles of survival.

 Survival is the ability(способность) to stay alive when life is threatened(кот. Угражает) after a shipping casualty. The primary difficulties & limiting factors facing survivors are drowning & exposure. These difficulties can be minimized by the correct type of equipment, the correct knowledge of survivors in the use of the equipment & the will to survive by all survivors. The first actions & attention must be concentrated on protection from exposure(подверженный воздействию).  Support(поддержание) of the body out of the water, protection from cold, wind & rain are essential. In temperate(умеренный) & cold climates heat loss from the body to the surrounding environment must be prevented by wearing plenty(обилие) of clothing. It is not recommended to sail away from the area of casualty. Survivors should keep survival craft secured & grouped together in order to provide a bigger location target and use the portable emergency transmitter to send out distress signal.

        All survival craft must be provided with rations(провизия) of water and food. And instructions for their use must be in the survival craft. The basic supply(снабжение) of water should be supplemented with rainwater & condensation where possible. But seawater & urine should never be drunk. Every seaman must know what to do in the case of an emergency in advance(заблаговремено). The time of emergency is not the time to learn! It is recommended to plan the emergency moves in advance , to plan what to do if an emergency arise, where the nearest exit to deck for escape , where is the nearest life jacket , lifeboat or raft. While abandoning(оставления) ship, it is recommended to try to board the lifeboat or raft dry. If immersion(погружение) is necessary you must try to enter the water slowly. Swimming increases body heat loss. To reduce your body heat loss it is recommended to float in the water with your legs together, elbows(локоть) to your side & arms across the chest(грудь).

Survival equipment and life craft.

   Life-saving appliances include survival craft, rescue boats, life-rafts and personnel life-saving equipment. Rigid or inflatable(надувной) life-jackets, immersion suit, life-buoy and thermal protective aid are personnel life-saving equipment.

   There are different types of lifeboats: open, partially enclosed, sea totally enclosed. For passenger vessels the capacity of lifeboats is generally sufficient for every person on board. For cargo vessels the capacity of lifeboats is generally twice the number of persons on board. Lifeboats are usually launched by davits(щлюпбалка) or free fall method.