Private space, pallet-forklift-truck handling.
This popular storage-handling system represents a good balance between efficiency and flexibility for many firms. It is frequently chosen as an alternative to public warehousing. The efficiency is gained through ownership of both the space and the materials-handling equipment. However, a high level of space and handling equipment utilization is needed in order for the efficiencies to be realized. Idle equipment and underutilized space caused by random and seasonal variations in the warehouse throughput can make this an unattractive choice. Flexibility is retained by use of pallets and forklift trucks. This materials-handling system is capable of a high level of productivity and is adaptable to changes in product mix, product dimensions, and throughput. This alternative is less expensive than the previous two, providing the throughput pattern is suited to it. Private space mechanized handling. The potentially least expensive, tat also least flexible, system is the automated warehouse. The level of fixed investment is high for both space and equipment. The system is often highly specialized to the type of products handled. The systems read like a "gee-whiz" story. For example, a model of such a system developed by Haitman Engineering has(l) storage racks as long as 700 feet, with heights i» the 65- to 80- foot range, (2) a stacker that can automatically store and retrieve loads in the 3000—6000-pound range with a 50-percent reduction in labor, (3) load/unload stations to automatically load and unload pallets on and off the stacker, (4) a control system that is computer driven so that loads are automatically positioned and retrieved, and (5) a stock-rotation method such as first-in-first-out (FIFO).
Although a number of major companies, including Carrier (air-conditioning components), Dupont (plastics). General Electric (chemicals and major appliances), Eastman Kodak (photographic materials), and IBM (computers and typewriters), have installed such systems, the greatest danger is that the product mix and level may change, making the system all or in part obsolete.
Bulk Freight and Large Items
Bulk products. Some products are of such a nature and move in such large quantities that they are more economically handled and transported without being packaged. Common examples are coal, oil, sand, grain, plastics, chemicals, and even toothpaste, milk, and orange juice. Moving goods in bulk form is acting in accordance with the principle that the greatest quantities of goods should be moved as far down the distribution-supply channel as possible before breaking them into smaller quantifies. The potential benefits are that movement and handling are less expensive (chemicals moved by rail are 5 to 27 percent less expensive if moved in bulk than if bagged), and that movement may be faster because there is often less handling involved in on-and-off loading and in making up trainload or barge-tow quantities.
1. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS.
Leased space; private space; volume of goods; length of time; public warehousing rates; storage rates; handling rates; accessorial changes; to lease storage space; manual handling; to be capable of; to be adaptable to changes; fixed investment; potential benefits; savings in packaging; added expense; software programs; disruptive lags of information; to play an important role in something; to turn something upside down; hose and vacuum methods; high volume goods; equipment restrictions; total cost.
2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
- what are the systems for goods of average weight? what are the systems for oversized goods?
- what is public space and handling system-design choice?
- what factors does the cost to the user depend on?
- how are public warehousing rates negotiated with the warehouse?
- what does the level of storage rates reflect? what determine the rate level?
what are accessorial charges?
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