Packaging for Distribution Efficiency
The final concern is how the package affects the efficiency of handling, storing, and moving the product. These are some of the most important concerns to the logistician in package design.
Unitization. Unitization refers to several packaged-goods systems were examined, and some of the problems and advantages of bulk handling were examined.
collecting many smaller packages together in a larger, single load. Materials-handling costs decrease as the size of the load handled can be increased. That is, for any given quantity of goods, fewer trips are required when more packages can be moved on a single trip. Labor costs are directly related to the number of trips that must be made in handling the goods. Containerization. The highest level of unitization that is achieved in modern distribution systems is containerization. Containers are large boxes, usually 8' x 8' x 10', 8' x 8' x 20', and 8' x 8' x 40', that can be placed on rail flatcars, on the chassis of trucks, on ships, and aboard the larger aircraft, They are large enough to accept palletized loads, are waterproof so that weather-protected storage is not required, and can be locked for security. They are usually or loaded and off-loaded on transportation equipment by cranes.
They have become particularly popular for the ocean movement of finished goods because loading and unloading before containerization was expensive relative to the movement phase of the trip, and because the round-trip time for a shipment could be reduced by many days. Much less use has been achieved with inland movements, although piggyback movement could be considered a form of containerization and has been popular between truck and rail, major reason for the limited use of containers is that it is expensive for a single transportation company to acquire an adequate stock of them, and a satisfactory program of exchange between transportation companies must be worked out before widespread use can take place
Identification. The package serves as a means of identifying the product in a way that the product itself might not be able to achieve from its outward appearance. Easier identification means less time in handling, and accurate identification means less rehandling later. When canned soup is offered in "5? varieties." washing machines in five colors, and a style of shoe in 20 sizes, the package is an important distinguishing feature. Common ways to help identification are by printing pictures on cartons, using color-coded tapes, and stenciling cod numbers and symbols on cartons.
ANSWER THE QUEST IONS.
- what are the three aspects of the product package?
- how have marketers used packages?
- what is the greatest concern of the logistician for most of the products?
- what must the logistician do to determine "now much packaging material is required?
- what are simple solutions to the problem of designing the package for security?
- what is a container?
- how are they usually on-loaded and off-loaded?
- why have they become particularly popular for the ocean movement of finished goods?
- what is a major reason for the limited use of containers?
- what arc common ways to help identification?
TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH.
1. Упаковка это средство для рекламы продукта и его использования.
2. Во-вторых, она обеспечивает защиту продукту.
3. И, наконец, это инструмент ,для улучшенной эффективности распределения.
4 Главная проблема логистиков для большинства продуктов, которые должны быть переработаны, - это повреждение,
5 Увеличение размера упаковки, создавая упаковку путем связывания отдельных товаров вместе, и делая картон более трудным для открывания, используя более прочные материалы и клей, - это несколько простых решений этой проблемы.
6. Последняя проблема - это как упаковка влияет на эффективность обработки, хранения и движения товара.
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