7. Пакетирование относится к сбору более мелких упаковок вместе в более большой единый груз.
8. Контейнеры - это большие коробы, которые могут размещаться на вагонных платформах, на каркасах грузовиков, на судах и на борту больших самолетов.
9. Они обычно грузятся и разгружаются на транспортные средства при помощи кранов.
10. Обычные способы идентификации - это путем распечатывания картинок на картонных коробках, использования цветных кодовых полосок и нанесения шифров и символов на коробки.
Let's now turn our attention to the broader issues of storage and materials-handling design.what must be considered when deciding which storage-handling system to use? In this and the previous chapter, storage and materials-handling details were discussed. We now want to consider both in combined forms that deal with the overall problem of goods movement. The following shows a firm's range of possibilities: (1) public space and handling; (2) leased space, manual handling; (3) private space, pallet-forklift truck handling; and (4) private space, mechanized handling. These are systems for goods of average weight and cube. Special systems are needed for oversize goods and for materials in bulk.
Public space and handling. The first option open to most firms is to purchase storage and materials-handling services outside the organization. Management can free itself of capital outlays for storage space and the related equipment, and of administration of the operation. The method by which goods are handled in the public warehouse is of little concert to the user.
The cost to the user compared with the other choices depends on such factors as (1) the volume of goods to be handled and stored, (2) the length of time the goods are to be stored, (3) the number of separate items in the storage mix. (4) any special restrictions for storage, (5) the average outbound order size, and (6) the amount of clerical work required for such activities as inventory record keeping and bill-lading preparation. Public warehousing rates are negotiated with the warehouse in three categories: (1) storage, (2) handling, and (3) accessorial.
Storage rates are quoted on a per-hundredweight-per-month basic. The actual level of rates reflects the length of time the goods are expected to be in storage. Handling rates are quoted on a per-hundredweight basis. How many times the warehouse must handle the goods and the characteristics of the goods being handled determine the rate level.
Accessorial charges are rates quoted for any service other than storage or handling. Preparing the bills of lading for shipments from the warehouse is a common service for which an extra, charge is made. When comparing the renting options for storage and handling, it is important to recognize renting as an all-variable-cost system. The firm having a substantial and stable storage-handling need would probably find renting more expensive than ownership. However, renting provides flexibility and requires no capital investment, which is especially appealing to the smaller or newly created firm.
Leased space, manual handling.
Another possible system-design choice is to lease storage space and combine it with manual handling. Such a system is practical for many retail stores, hospitals, and service firms in which the volume of goods is not high but a longer-term commitment to storage space is more economical than renting. Leasing provides many of the benefits of ownership, such as control of the space, and the charges are billed at regular intervals. Handling equipment requires only a modest investment, and the labor component in handling is high. This system can be less expensive than renting, but does require the firm to commit itself to a long-term lease.
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