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Prevention Is a Cure
A fortunate discovery. Long before men discovered how germs spread infectious disease, they were searching for ways to prevent disease. Many of these searches were carried out in the darkness of scientific ignorance. However, occasionally a brilliant or fortunate man would make a great discovery.
Biology in medicine. Snow and Semmelweis did not know why their aseptic procedures worked. They knew only that when people washed, less disease was transmitted. It remained for a chemist, Louis Pasteur, to discover why washing prevented the spread of disease.
After studying and solving a problem of the French wine industry, Pasteur turned his scientific energies to the study of germs. He realized that bacteria, or one-celled plants, are present everywhere. He first worked with bacteria that were ruining much of the wine produced by French vineyards. Later he worked with a silkworm disease that was threatening the French silk industry. In both cases he found that bacteria caused the disease. He later specialized in the study of bacteria. He proved beyond a doubt that bacteria were the cause of many diseases in animals and humans.
Successful surgery. You may have heard that surgery during the nineteenth century was a terribly dangerous undertaking. Surgeons often lost more patients than they cured. The reason for the terrible record of the surgeons was that no one realized that bacteria in the air can easily contaminate open wounds. Once Pasteur had made the giant step and had shown that infection and disease are caused by bacteria, other men began to improve operating conditions.
Joseph Lister, a famous English surgeon, is usually given credit for developing a method of antiseptic surgery. Lister realized that wounds would not become infected if the bacteria already present on the wound could be killed and the bacteria in the air could be prevented from entering the wound. He used a variety of techniques using carbolic (kär bol'ik) acid as an antiseptic. The carbolic acid killed the germs in the wound. Lister kept out the bacteria in the air by covering wounds with material soaked with the carbolic acid. His treatment was so successful that surgery became much safer. Lister's discovery also made it safe for surgeons to attempt much more delicate surgery than they had dared undertake before. Later, the specific bacteria that cause wound infections were identified by Robert Koch, a man who contributed almost as much to the science of medical biology as did Pasteur himself.
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Childhood 1_____ (to be) a time of joy and innocence for most people: for others, life 2_____ (to turn) violent and so do they. Criminal acts of young persons 3_____ broadly ______ (to refer) to as juvenile delinquency. In some countries delinquency 4_____ (to include) conduct that is antisocial, dangerous, or harmful to the goals of society. The age at which juveniles legally 5_____ (to become) adults 6______ (to vary) from country to country, but it generally 7_____ (to range) from 15 to 18. Clearly the problem 8_____ (to skyrocket): for example, in 1990 rates of arrest in California for burglary, theft, car theft, arson and robbery 9_____ (to be) higher among juveniles than among adults. Sociological research 10_____ (to establish) such bases for predicting delinquent behaviour as the nature of a child's home environment, the quality of the child's neighbourhood, and behaviour in school. It 11_____ conclusively _____ (to prove), however, that delinquency can 12_____ either (to predict) or 13_____ (to prevent). It 14_____ (to be) far likelier that delinquency 15_____ (to be) an integral part of society and probably part of the maturation process that some children 16_____ (to go) through. For the majority of young offenders, delinquency 17_____ (to seem) to be a phase passed through on the way to adulthood. Delinquent acts 18_____ (to begin) at the age of 10 or 11. The most serious activities peak at 14 or 15 years and then 19_____ (to begin) to 20_____ (to decline) in the next several years.
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