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How Does Smoking Affect Health?
Surgeon General’s report. In 1964 Surgeon General Luther Terry released a 380-page report of a committee that had studied the effects of smoking on health. The committee members had analyzed hundreds of research studies on the effects of smoking. The ten doctors on the committee summarized their findings and recommendations in one sentence: "Cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States to warrant appropriate remedial action" In simpler language this means that smoking is a danger to people's health, and that something should be clone about it.
The committee made this strong statement because it found that cigarette smoking is directly related to cancer of the lung and lip, chronic bronchitis, heart disease, emphysema (em’fə sē'me), and several other serious diseases.
You can understand that not all smokers have lung cancer or any of the other diseases associated with smoking. Smoking does not cause these diseases in all smokers, for the same reason that cold viruses do not cause colds in all people who are exposed to them. Smoking greatly increases a smoker's chances of contracting the diseases mentioned. But it does not make it certain that he will contract them.
Smoke affects the heart. Doctors have known for years that the nicotine (nik'ə tēn) in cigarette smoke has several effects on the body. Most of these occur if a smoker inhales the smoke of cigarettes. When the blood absorbs nicotine from the smoke in the lungs, several reactions occur. Some blood vessels contract, thus slowing the flow of blood to the regions served by these vessels. The heart is forced to work harder in order to pump blood through the narrower blood vessels. Thus, the blood pressure rises, and a strain is placed on the heart.
You can see that it would be especially injurious for a person with a heart disease to smoke heavily. In fact the report of the Surgeon General of the United States shows that more smokers die of heart disease than do nonsmokers.
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Teenage drinking 1_____ (to be) very dangerous. What 2_____ (to happen) to the grown up in ten years 3_____(to happen) to the teenager in two. Within a short time he 4_____ (to become) a hopeless alcoholic. It 5_____ (to know) that an alcoholic's life 6_____ (to shorten) on the average by ten twelve years. Alcohol 7_____ (to cause) heart disease and finally brain damage. When the effect of a drink 7_____ (to be) over an alcoholic 8_____ (to get) nervous and aggressive until he 9_____ (to drink) again. He often 10_____ (to fail) to recognize the problem: "I can 11_____ (to stop) any time I want to," is the typical reaction. By the time he 12_____ (to realize) he has got a drinking problem he 13______already _____ (to reach) the point of no return. He 14_____ (to begin) losing friends and is soon unable to carry on with school or work. In many schools in the lJSA, in Britain and in Germany programmes 15_____ (to start) to teach both pupils and teachers the facts about alcoholism. Many people 16_____ (to help) by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), an organization of former drinkers who now spend their time helping other alcoholics 17_____ (to control) their-drinking problem. The members of AA help each other. They 18_____ (to admit) to themselves and others that they are alcoholics and therefore need help. It is being in group that 19_____ (to help) them to control their alcoholism. They 20_____ (to manage) it on their own.
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