Prices and markets. Types of market, страница 8

DD - оригинальная кривая требования требования, и D1D1 - положение кривой требования после пользующегося большим спросом увеличения. По любой данной цене больше потребовано. Например, тогда как количество 150 единиц было ранее потребовано по цене 4$, количество, потребованное по цене 4$, guantity, потребованный по той цене после того, как пользующееся большим спросом увеличение является 220 единицами.

Иллюстрация 1.4 может также использоваться, чтобы показать эффекты пользующегося большим спросом падения. Все, что мы должны сделать, должно предположить, что D1D1 теперь представляет оригинальную кривую требования. Пользующееся большим спросом падение означает, что меньше потребовано по каждой цене, таким образом кривая требования двигается в DD.

3.  Пользующееся большим спросом увеличение означает, что требование изгибает шаги направо, вызывая больше, чтобы быть потребованным по каждой цене.

4.  Пользующееся большим спросом падение означает, что требование изгибает шаги налево, вызывая меньше, чтобы быть потребованным по каждой цене.

1.6.1 Causes of movements of the demand curve

·  Changes in income

An increase in real income will, in most cases, increase the demand for goods and services; a fall in income will reduce the demand for most goods and services. Strictly speaking, it is changes in disposable income tax and social security benefits will have important effects on demand and change the positions of demand curves.

There are some circumstances, however, where an increase in real income might cause the demand for a good or service to fall. Some commodities are described as inferior goods, because an increase in real income causes people to buy less of them. Which goods happen to be ‘inferior’ depends upon the existing standard of living. In Western Europe and North America, for example, there has been a serious decline in the demand for public transport as incomes have risen and more people have been able to afford motor cars. In the same regions, the demand for bread has been falling for many years. As standards of living have risen, bread has become a much smaller part of people’s diet. When real incomes were much lower, bread represented a major part of the food consumed by many people.

An increase in real income will reduce the demands for inferior goods and move their demand curves to the left.

·  Changes in the prices of other goods

·  Substitutes

As pointed out earlier, many goods have close substitutes. A change in the price of one of these goods will affect the demands for the substitutes. Different brands of margarine are close substitutes for one another. An increase in the price of one brand will undoubtedly lead to an increase in the demand for the others. Similarly, a fall in the price of one brand of brand of paint is likely to reduce the demands for other brands of paint.

·  Complementary goods

There are goods in joint demand, where the use of one goods requires the use of another. Obvious examples are cameras and films, cars and petrol, and cassette players and tapes. In these cases, the demand for one goods will be affected by changes in price of its complement. An increase in the price of gas will affects the demands for gas cookers and gas fires, and if cameras became much cheaper, there would be an increased demand for films.

·  Changes in taste and fashion

The demands for some products are subject to large and frequent changes in demand. This is especially true of those goods and services which are affected by changes in taste and fashion. The clothing, footwear and entertainment industries are good examples. In recent years, publicity about dangers to health has had important effects on the demands for certain foods. Those which have received bad publicity have experienced falling demands; those which have received favorable publicity have experienced increased –demands.

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