Prices and markets. Types of market, страница 24

Эта нехватка соревнования могла привести к ним являющийся менее эффективным чем фирмы, которые должны конкурировать с другими фирмами.

7.  Когда промышленность монополизирована, есть только один источник поставки. Разнообразие товаров, доступных для потребителей, будет иметь тенденцию быть меньше чем то, что поставлялось бы многими конкурирующими фирмами.

8.  Новые методы и новые продукты часто вводятся маленькими вновь учрежденными фирмами. Факт, что монополии могут препятствовать тому, чтобы другие фирмы вошли в промышленность, означает, что поток новых идей и новых продуктов будет вероятно ограничен.

Ответьте на них вопрос, основанный на тексте выше:

5.  Когда монополия существует?

6.  Когда что главные особенности монополии?

7.  Как монополии созданы?

8.  Что барьеры для доступа - промышленность?

2.3 The control of monopoly

There are widely-held beliefs that monopolies will use their market power to charge prices which are much higher than costs, and so make excessive profits. Many people also believe that actions which restrict competition are generally harmful to the economy. These views and others have persuaded governments to control the activities of monopolies.

The fact that monopoly situations can have advantages for the general public as well as disadvantages has meant that monopolies have not been banned. In the UK, the government’s policy is designed to remove the disadvantages of monopolies, while retaining, where possible, the advantages.

There are two kinds of monopoly organizations which are subject to government control:

21)  where there is a single-firm monopoly, and

22)  where the firms in an industry make an agreement not to compete with one another, and take action to restrict the entry of new firms, (Such agreements are known as restrictive trade practices, and were discussed above.)

Government controls apply to monopolies in the supply of services as well as goods. In British law, a firm (or group of firms acting together) does not have to control 100 % of the supply of a good or service in order to be classed as monopoly. If it controls more than 25% of the total supply it counts as a monopoly.

The government has established a number of institutions which have the task of investigating monopolies in order to discover whether or not they are acting against the public interest. These include the following.

·  The Director-General of Fair Trading

This important official has the main responsibility for seeing that the government’s policy on monopolies and competition are carried out. His department, the Office of Fair Trading, collects information on the way in which companies and trade associations are conducting their business, and recommends action when it appears that firms are doing things which are against the public interest.

·  The Monopolies and Mergers Commission (MMC)

This commission consists of men and women drawn from different occupations, who serve on a part-time basis. The task of the MMC is to investigate monopolies, and to publish reports on their findings. In these reports, the MMC sets out any changes it would like to see in the organization of the industry, the way in which the goods and services are marketed, the way in which the prices are fixed, and so on. After considering such a report, the government decides what action should be taken. It may advice or, if necessary, order firms to make changes in the way they are running their businesses.

The MMC can also be asked to investigate and report on the likely effect of reposed mergers. A merger can be vetoed by the government if it thinks it will egad to an unsatisfactory monopoly situation.

·  The Restrictive Practices Court

This is a branch of the High Court which was set up to deal with restrictive trade practices. A decision of the Court becomes part of UK law.