Prices and markets. Types of market, страница 27

Traders’ weights, measures and scales must be accurate, and it is an offence to give short measure or inadequate quantity, or to mark pre-packed goods with a wrong indication of their quantity.

·  The Food and Drugs Act

This act makes it an offence to sell unfit food, or to describe food falsely, or to mislead people as to its nature, substance or quality. The Act also includes regulations governing hygiene in all places where food is prepared or sold.

·  The Consumer Safely Act

This legislation aims to protect consumers from unsafe goods, and to reduce the risk of death or injury. Regulation has been made in respect of the design and materials used in such things as electrical appliances, room heaters and cooking utensils, and the flammability of clothing materials.

·  The Consumer Credit Act

Many goods and services, especially durable consumer goods, are now bought on credit; that is, they are purchased by installments. This Act makes it compulsory for traders to supply full information about their credit and hire-purchase schemes, so that purchasers will not be misled about the terms on which they are buying the goods and services.

2.4.1 Other sources of help for consumers

There are a large number of organizations which offer help and advice to consumers. Three examples are described below.

·  Local authorities

Local authorities have Trading Standards, Consumer Protection, and Health department, whose job it is to make sure that most of the laws described above are enforced. They investigate complaints about unfair advertising, misleading descriptions of goods, products which are unsafe, unhygienic conditions in food shops and restaurants, and so on. Offenders are prosecuted. Many local authorities also have Consumer Advice Centers, to which shoppers can take complaints and which offer information and advice.

·  Citizens’ Advice Bureaus

These provide a ‘walk-in’ service and offer help and advice on all aspects of shopping. They also deal with queries on such matters as housing, health and legal matters.

·  The Consumers’ Association

This is a private organization which is paid for by members’ subscriptions. Membership is open to everyone. Its monthly magazine, Which? , publishes the results of tests carried out on a wide range of goods and services. Since the association gets no money from industry or advertising, it can offer independent advice and is free to criticize anything which it thinks is unsafe, of inferior quality or poor value for money.

Answer these question based on the text above:

1.  What was the restrictive practices court set up for?

2.  What are the duties of the Director – General of Fair Trading?

3.  What are the major acts of Parliament which deal with consumers rights?

2.4 Защита потребителя

На совершенно свободном рынке отдельный потребитель находится в слабом положении, имея дело с поставщиками товаров и услуг. У него или ее нет технического знания или опыта делового мира, который обычно охвачен продавцами или товарами и услугами. Поэтому правительство взяло полномочия защитить потребителей и удостовериться, что они преднамеренно не введены в заблуждение или имели дело с незаконно фирмами, продающими товары и услуги.

Генеральный директор Добросовестной конкуренции действует как сторожевой пес потребителей. Его обязанности включают следующее:

35)  предложение новых законов, чтобы закончить несправедливые торговые методы,

36)  поощрение торговых ассоциаций составить кодексы хорошего поведения для их фирм - членов,

37)  контакт с изготовителями и торговцами, которые постоянно передают преступления,

38)  Держание в курсе общественности их прав, издавая брошюры и буклеты.

Главные парламентские акты, которые имеют дело с правами потребителей, следующие.

·  Продажа и Поставка законов о Товарах

Это законодательство требует, чтобы поставляемые товары удовлетворили три условия: