Noun. Number. Nouns only in singular. Nouns only in plural

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Singular / Plural

1. –s: tables, books, months s, ss, ch, sh, x, z, o: boxes, glasses, buses. But: pianos, photos, stereos, cuckoos, kilos, videos, radios, studios, zoos, discos, kangaroos.

3. man – men, woman – women, tooth – teeth, foot – feet, goose – geese, mouse – mice, louse – lice.

4. child – children, ox – oxen.

5. phenomenon – phenomena, datum – data, crisis – crises, stimulus – stimuli, formula – formulae, index – indices.

6. f/fe > v + es: wife – wives, shelf, half, scarf, wolf, self, leaf, life, loaf, thief, knife, calf, sheaf. But: roof – roofs, belief – beliefs, chief – chiefs, proof – proofs, etc.

7. согл. + y > i + es: lady – ladies, army – armies.

8. гл. + y > y + s: day – days.

9. compound nouns: a) postman – postmen, housewife – housewives

b) brother-in-law – brothers-in-law, editor-in-chief – editors-in-chief

c) man-servant – men-servants, woman-doctor – women-doctors

d) forget-me-not – forget-me-nots, merry-go-round – merry-go-rounds

Zero plural

1. Deer - deer, sheep, swine, fish, cheese, fruit, grouse (рябчик), craft (aircraft), trout, cod, salmon, means, species, works, series, corps, offspring; hundred, thousand, million, score (десяток), dozen.

2. Nouns ending in –ese/ss: a Japanese – two Japanese.

Nouns only in singular

1. applause, advice, baggage/luggage, behaviour, bread, furniture, money, information, news, progress, permission, scenery, traffic, travel, trouble, weather, work, business, knowledge, strength, hair, courage, despair, linen, accommodation, luck, equipment, wood, sand, food, spaghetti, macaroni, chaos.

2. kinds of sports: aerobics, athletics, gymnastics.

3. kinds of games: cards, darts, dominoes, droughts, billiards, bowls.

4. sciences: mathematics, physics, phonetics, politics, linguistics, acoustics, tactics, ethics.

5. diseases: measles (корь), mumps (свинка), rickets, shingles (краснуха).

6. countries: Athens, Brussels, Naples, Wales, the United States.

7. two weeks is enough; four years is a long time.

Nouns only in plural

Arms, clothes, stairs, goods, contents, oats, wages, valuables, tongs, belongings, sermons (проповедь), scissors, scales, spectacles, glasses, pyjamas, jeans, tights, outskirts, holidays, customs, riches, trousers, binoculars, braces, pants, shorts, suspenders, regards, earnings, greens, manners, remains, surroundings, thanks, troops, whereabouts, sights, sweets, people, savings, the Middle Ages.

Gate – gates, watch – watches, sledge – sledges.

Paper – a paper, hair – a hair, experience – an experience, light – a light, time – a time, coffee – a coffee, caution – a caution, ice – an ice, rubber – a rubber. 




1. Living beings: man’s dream, girl’s name, Dickens’s novels (singular);

children’s toys, girls’ names (plural);

2. an organization (a group of people), ships and boats: the government’s decision, the company’s success, the ship’s captain;

3. the place (town, city, country, river, ocean, world, names of the countries): the world’s population, Russia’s exports;

4. time and distance: two hours’ drive, month’s holiday;

5. time words: tomorrow’s meeting, today’s newspaper.

We can say: ten minutes’ break or a ten-minute break 

Such words as house, shop, office are usually omitted: I was at my aunt’s (house). She went to the baker’s (shop).


The comparison of adjectives

1. one-syllable and some two-syllable words ending in –y, -er, -ow, -le    +    -er and the … -est: hot – hotter – the hottest, large – larger – the largest, narrow – narrower – the narrowest, busy – busier – the busiest.

2. two or more syllable words + more and the most: interesting – more interesting – the most interesting.

3. irregular forms: good – better – the best, bad – worse – the worst, little – smaller – the smallest (less – the least), far – farther – the farthest / further – the furthest, old – older – the oldest / elder – the eldest, much/many – more – the most, late – later – the latest/the last, near – nearer – the nearest/the next

* Give me further information.

* Mary is my eldest daughter.

* My elder sister is two years older than me.

* The last train leaves at 5.

* I heard the latest news.

* In the near future (в ближайшем будущем).


as … as / not so … as / not as … as – такой же как / не такой же как

* This book is as interesting as that one.

Twice as … as / three times as … as – в два / три раза больше

* Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.

* Their house is three times as big as ours.

Half as much (many) / half the size / half my age / half the weight – в два раза меньше / в два раза меньше / в два раза моложе / в два раза легче

* He is half my age.

* My bag is half the weight of yours.

The more … the better – чем … тем

* The warmer the weather the better I feel.

The same … as – такой же … как

Tom is the same age as Bob.

Much, far, a great deal, a lot / bit, a little – намного, гораздо, значительно / немного

* This book is far more interesting than that one. * Could you speak a bit (little) more slowly?

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