Pronoun. Personal pronouns. Reflexive pronouns. Interrogative pronouns

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1. Personal pronouns: I - me, he - him, she – her, it – it, you – you, we – us, they – them.

* He is my best friend. * I saw him at the station. * It is she who is always late! * He is taller than me (= I am). * Who told him the truth? – Me (= I did).

2. Possessive pronouns: my – mine, his – his, her – hers, its, your – yours, our – ours, their – theirs.

* She is my daughter. * Is it your name? * The cat drank its milk. * This book is mine. * That friend of yours is always in trouble.

3. Reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

* They always do it themselves. * My sister likes to make cakes herself.

We don’t use reflexive pronouns after such verbs as: feel, relax, concentrate, wash, dress, shave, behave: * I got up, washed, shaved and dressed quickly.

But: * Wash yourself! – Помойся! * Behave yourself! – Веди себя прилично!

4. Reciprocal pronouns: each other (только 2 чел-ка), one another (больше, чем 2 чел-ка ).

* All these people know one another.

* Tom and Ann looked at each other.

5. Demonstrative pronouns: this, these, that, those

* This is a computer.

* Those shoes are mine.

6. Interrogative pronouns: who, whose, what, which, whom.

* Who was that? – It was my friend. * What are you looking for? * What is on the table? * Whose pen is this? * Whom are you waiting for? * Which would you like: this or that?

Remember: Who is he? – He is Tom. (He is my brother).

What is he? – He is a doctor.

7. Defining pronouns: each, every (-body, -thing, -where), either, both, other, another.

* Each person in our group has this book (ограниченное количество людей).

* Every university has a library (неограниченное число, все университеты).

Remember: every day, every week, every Monday, every ten minutes, every three days.

* Both brothers live in Minsk. * They both graduated from Cambridge. * Both of them must go there. 

Remember: Both … and – и … и / как … так и

* Both Peter and Mary were there.

* You may go by either road. * Here are two dictionaries, you may take either of them (Всегда любой из двух, не больше).

Remember: Either … or – или … или

* She is either in Moscow or in Kiev.

* Other people have told me the same thing. * The dog ate only meat and refused other food          (с сущ-ми во множ. числе или с неисчисляемыми сущ-ми ).

* There are two books on the table. One of them is mine, the other is my sister’s (другой из двух).

* Some people believe in God, others don’t (неограниченное кол-во людей).

* I see only Kate and Sue, where are the others? (другие люди из их компании)

Remember: one after the other – один за другим, the other day – на днях, недавно.

* I’ve lost my pen, give me another one. * Can you give me another cup of tea? * We need another two weeks to finish this work. * Come another day.

Remember: one way or another – так или иначе.

8. Indefinite pronouns: some (-body, -one, -thing, -where, -how), any (-body, -one, -thing, -where).

* I want some eggs. * Would you like some coffee? * May I have some tea? * There was somebody in the room (в утвердительных предложениях, в вежливых просьбах и предложениях).

* I don’t want any food. * There’s hardly any milk. * Is there anybody at home? In this shop you can find any book you like. * Anybody can do it (в отрицательных предложениях, в общих вопросах, а также в утвердительных предложениях в значении «любой» ).

9. Negative pronouns: no (-body, -one, -thing, -where), none, neither.                 

* There are no buses after midnight (= There are not any buses after midnight). * There is nothing I can do. * Nobody is absent today.

* None of my friends saw him yesterday (ограниченное кол-во).

* Do you have any English books? – None / I have none (в кратких ответах).

* Both my sisters moved to Paris, but neither of them speaks French fluently (никто из двух, не более).

Remember: Neither ... nor – ни … ни

* Neither my wife nor I liked the story.

10. Quantitative pronouns: much, many, little, few, a little, a few.

* He has so many friends. * Many people attended the meeting yesterday.

* Do you have much work to do today? * I don’t know much about it.

* I have very little time. * Little has been said about it.

* She has few Spanish books. * There were very few people there.

* I want to say a few words.

* Pour me a little water, please.

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