Sequence of Tenses. Основные положения правила согласования времен в английском языке

Страницы работы

Фрагмент текста работы

предложения может стоять в любом времени , которое требуется по смыслу 

Главное предложение

Придаточное предложение

Он говорит

что  изучает анатомию

that he studies Anatomy

что он изучал анатомию

that  he studied Anatomy

что он будет изучать анатомию

that   he will study Anatomy

3. Правило согласования времен не соблюдается:

а) если сказуемое придаточного предложения выражает общеизвестный факт

She said

That the sun rises in the morning and sets in the evening

Она сказала, что солнце встает утром и заходит вечером

б) если сказуемое придаточного предложения выражено модальными глаголами  must, should ,ought  и    инфинитивом

I knew that he must visit his sick friend

Я знал, что он должен навестить своего больного друга

He told us that he ought to take care after  his grandmother

Он сказал нам, что обязан заботиться о своей бабушке.

в) в придаточных предложениях, а также в предложениях, которые вводятся союзом than, as ... that, as ... as ,less than

Yesterday the doctor saw fewer patients than he has seen today

Вчера врач принял меньше пациентов чем сегодня

Last week he worked as hard as he works now

На прошлой неделе он работал так же усердно, как и на этой неделе.

Ex.1 Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на правила согласования времен.

1.Physiologists found that blood had vitamins.   2.It was found out that when a person died his body continued to live for some time.   3. I found the book which I needed.   4.They said that they had lived in Minsk.  5. He thought that she would go with him.6. He says that he was working in Gomel. 7.She knows that I am busy.  8.She knew that  I had been busy. 9.He knows that they were busy. 10.He said that he was working in Gomel. 11.She says that Jane will go to London. 12. She SAID THAT Bob would go to London. 13.The doctor was sure that medicine was highly valuable in the treatment of tuberculosis. 14. They knew that the amount of the fluid part of the blood composed 60% .15.We know that I.M.Sechenov was a famous Russian physiologist who investigated blood gases.

Ex.2 Прочитайте и проанализируйте следующие случаи согласования времен.

a)Susan says (that)

1.She moved to a new flat

2.She moved to a new flat

3.She will move to a new flat.

b)John said (that)

1.he was busy

2.he had busy

3.he would be busy

Ex.3 Переведите придаточные дополнительные предложения, соблюдая правила согласования времен.


The therapeutist knew that

a) больной быстро выздоравливает

(to recover)

b) больной быстро выздоровел

c) больной скоро выздоровеет


The investigator said that 

a)он заканчивает свои наблюдения

(to complete the observations)

b) он закончил свои наблюдения на прошлой неделе

c) он закончит свои наблюдения на следующей неделе


The nurse said that

a) врач оперирует пациента

(to perform an operation on smb.)

b) врач прооперировал вчера пациента

c) врач будет оперировать пациента завтра


They say, that

a) он хороший врач

b) он был хорошим врачом

c) он будет хорошим врачом


The doctor thoughtthat

a) она должна следовать строгой диете (to follow a strict diet)

b) она должна была следовать строгой диете

c) она должна будет следовать строгой диете

Ex.4 Раскройте скобки, выбирая требующееся время глагола.

1.He said he (will come, would come to the station to see me of. 2.Ann says she  (works, worked, was working) at the hospital 2 years ago. 3.My friend said he (was, had been ,is) busy last Monday. 4.She asked me where I  (studied, study)  5. Nick asked me who ( is playing, was playing, played)  the violin. 6.I was sure he  (posted, had posted ) the card. 7.I think the weather  (will be, would be ) fine next week. 8. He thought that I   (am , had been ,was)  a student. I asked my sister to tell me what she ( has seen, saw, had seen ) at the museum.

Ex.5.Поставьте глагол главного предложения в прошедшем времени. Соответственно внесите необходимые изменения в придаточном предложении.

1.  He says that he will leave for Manchester in the morning.

2.  We hope that we shall reach home before night.

3.  I cannot understand what the doctor means.

4.  I know that my friend studied Chemistry.

5.  Scientists believe that they may build an observation station in space.

6.  The students tell the teacher that they are ready to start their work.

7.  The man says that his name is Smith.

8.  We don’t know that you can speak French.

9.  My friend says that he has read this book.

10.  The students are sure that they will pass the exams successfully.

11.  She tells us that everybody is looking at her.

12.  Peter thinks that he will become a famous surgeon.

13.  I promise we shall not be very late.

14.  The teacher is sure that I haven’t made many mistakes in my test.

15.  The doctor declares that the boy will soon be well.

Ex.6 Составьте предложения по образцу.

Model 1:

The students told the teacher that they were ready.

Model 2:

Everybody knows that Chemistry is closely connected with the progress of the world.

Model 3:

I noticed that he was writing his report.

Model 4:

She said that he would come in a month.

Ex.7 Предложения в скобках используйте как главные предложения. Составьте сложноподчиненные предложения, сдвигая времена в соответствии с правилом согласования времен

1.  She never drinks cold water. (I was told)

2.  He is a very talented singer. (We  were told.)

3.  The children are playing in the garden. (She thought)

4.  Her friend will be cured completely. (She hoped)

5.  She knows English very well. (I supposed)

6.  They lived a happy life. (We know)

7.  Her father has been reparing her toy for 2 hours. (She thought)

8.  Two musicians were playing the instruments. (We heard)

9.  My cousin has received a very interesting offer from his firm. (I learnt)

Ex.8 Вставьте глагол в требуемом по смыслу времени.

1. The patient stated that the attack of abdominal pain (to begin) to days before. 2. The doctor in change knew that the patient (to work) as a pilot. 3. On physical examination it became clear that the patient’s breathlessness (to subside) by and by. 4. I thought you (to be) very busy. 5. Mother said that the girl (to have) many children’s a diseases. 6. The doctor considers that patient Ivanov (to be discharged) from the hospital by the end of the next week. 7. The patient said that he (not to order) the prescription in time. 8/ The cardiologist was sure that the nurse (to give) the exact amount of medicine to the patient every day. 9. The patient  said that the doctors (to be) very qualified. 10. The doctor suggested that the newly admitted patient (to suffer) from a bad heart attack. 11. Dr. Ivanov was sure that the boy (to be cured) completely in a couple of weeks. 12. She understands that she (must) to follow a strict bed regime. 13. All my fellow students were sure that they (to manage) to do this work successfully. 14. She knows that the doctor (to examine) her thoroughly. 15. Everybody knew that this medical examination (to take) 2 hours.

Ex.9 Переведите на английский язык, соблюдая правила согласования времен.

1.  Мы вчера узнали, что она  больна.

2.  Мы не думали, что она не придет в институт

3.  Мне сказали, что ты мне звонил.

4.  Она сказала, что подруга пригласила ее в театр.

5.  Она сказала, что ее коллеги всегда дают ей прекрасные советы.

6.  Я думал, что медсестра скажет мне результаты анализов.

7.  Мы надеялись, что все студенты нашей группы сдадут сессию хорошо.

8.  Мой друг пообещал, что бросит курить.

9.  Я боялся, что вы не последуете моему совету.

10.  Я был уверен, что он станет выдающимся хирургом.

Ex.10 Объедините пары предложений в одно при помощи союза соблюдая правила согласования времен. Переведите предложения.

1. The doctor knew well ... . The member of leucocytes will decrease after the treatment. 2. Investigating the phenomenon of respiratory metabolism it became clear to the scientists ... . The respiratory metabolism takes place in the alveoli

Похожие материалы

Информация о работе