English and will be noted in the vocabulary section throughout the course as a "noun as adj." Remember to click "HEAR IN CONTEXT" to see and hear how the word is used in the context of a sentence.
can, you (modal aux., can/to be able)
Modal auxiliaries are extremely useful components of verbal expressions which you will practice throughout this course. They readily take on infinitives as in the following examples: "I can speak English." "You cannot understand." etc.
citizens (noun, pl.)
claim (noun as adj.)
The following words can be used in reference to "conversation": "chat," "discussion," "talk," etc.
The word "customs" not only refers to a place where issues of nationality are discussed (such as in an "international airport"), but also refers to the "traditions" of a people or culture. (E.g.: "Americans make a custom of preparing turkey at Thanksgiving.")
declare (inf., to declare)
To distinguish the dialect of English spoken in the United States from that of Great Britain, one often refers to "American English" and "British English." Besides slight differences in vocabulary, accent and intonation, there are also some slight spelling differences as well ("center" [U.S.] vs. "centre" [G.B.], "realize" vs. "realise," "color" vs. "colour," etc.).
enjoy! (imp., to enjoy)
enter, you (to enter)
excuse! (imp., to excuse)
The imperative form (imp.) of a verb is also known as the "command" form. You'll learn how to form commands in Chapter 4 of this course.
Words ending in "-ly" are, in many cases, adverbs (a part of speech which modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb). Adverbs are marked "adv." in the vocabulary lists.
"First" is an ordinal number which corresponds to "one." It is commonly abbreviated as "1st." You'll study the ordinals in Chapter 4 of this course.
follow, you (to follow)
gave, he (past, to give)
gives, he (to give)
go ahead (inf., to go ahead)
Many verbs in English are two-word verbs, composed of a verbal element and a particle. In many cases, two-word verbs are idiomatic.
go, you (to go)
An easy way to talk about the future, especially an event in the near future, is to use a form of the verb "to go" plus an infinitive (E.g.: "We're going to open our luggage" and "I'm going to visit New York.")
going (pres. part., to go)
good afternoon (salutation)
Other similar salutations include "good morning," "good evening," "good night," "hello," "good-bye," "How are you?," "How's it going?".
Hartsfield (prop. noun)
The name of Atlanta's International Airport, one of the busiest in the world.
have (inf., to have)
here's (contr., "here is")
In order to point out something nearby, usually within reach, use the expressions "here is" (sing.) and "here are" (plur.). (E.g.: "Here is my passport"; "Here are your keys.")
When you greet people in the U.S., it is customary to use "Hello," which is more formal than "hi." However, "hi" is frequently used, even when meeting someone for the first time. At the end of a conversation, a simple "good-bye" or "bye" will suffice.
hope, you (to hope)
I (subj. pron., 1st. pers. sg.)
I'm (contr., "I am")
Noted as a contraction (contr.) of "I am," "am" is the first person singular form of "to be" ("I am, he/she/it is, we are, you are, they are").
immigration (noun/noun as adj.)
Similar words include "immigrant" (noun, i.e., a person) and the verb "to immigrate" (to come to a country). "To emigrate," on the other hand, means to leave your current country, to settle in another.
is, it (to be)
it (neut. pron., 3rd. pers. sg.)
it's (contr., "it is")
Synonyms include "big," "huge," "immense," "enormous" and "grand." The opposite of "large" is "small."
leave, you (to leave)
The opposite of "long" is "short," as in "a short flight." "Long" and "short" may refer to both time and space.
lot (noun, colloq.)
Another way to express the idea of a great quantity is to use the word "many," "several," or "lots of" (slang) followed by a noun. (E.g.: "Many people," "several flights," "lots of cars," etc.)
"Luggage" refers to a set of "suitcases" and "bags" with which one travels.
may (modal aux.)
There are many polite expressions that you will frequently hear and use such as "May I?" ("Can I?,") "I would like... ," and "Would you... ?" ("Could you... ?"). A handy phrase to remember when making a request is "May I?" "May I" can be followed by many different infinitives, as in "May I have something to drink?" and "May I use your telephone?"
me (obj. pron., 1st pers. sg.)
"Me" is the object pronoun form of the subject pronoun "I."
must (modal aux.)
my (poss. pron., 1st. pers. sg.)
Instead of answering a question with a simple "no," some people will use the slang "nah," "nope," or "uh-uh" (this last one should not be confused with "uh-huh," an affirmative response).
A negative particle used before many words (nouns and adjectives), "non-" signifies "not" or "the opposite of" as in "non-American" and "nonconformist."
Also "ok, OK, okay." Other expressions used to show one's agreement include "all right," "absolutely," "sure," "certainly" and "of course." A fun (and somewhat common) slang expression is "okie-dokie."
The different uses of the adjectives "other" and "another" are presented in the Grammar section of Chapter 12.
people (noun., sg.)
This noun is considered plural in English in terms of subject-verb agreement, even though it is singular.
pick up, you (to pick up)
plan, I (to plan)
"Plane" is a shortened form of "airplane," and is commonly used in reference to large "jets" as well as smaller "aircraft."
please! (imp., to please)
A polite way to form a command is to use the word "please" followed
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