c. A major source of economic growth and rising living standards derives only from division of labour.
2) How do regions take advantage of interregional trade?
a. With trade, each region can concentrate its efforts on what it does relatively well.
b. With trade among regions, specialization is impossible.
c. With trade, each region cannot concentrate its efforts on what it does relatively well.
3) What does the international trade mean?
a. International trade refers to production of goods and services.
b. International trade refers to exchanges of goods and services that take place in one region.
c. International trade refers to exchanges of goods and services that take place across national boundaries.
4) Why does international trade take place?
a. International trade takes place because of differences in costs of production between countries.
b. International trade takes place because of differences in prices between countries.
c. International trade takes place because it decreases the economic welfare of each country.
5) Why do differences in costs of production exist?
a. Differences in costs of production exist because individuals exchange their surpluses with other people.
b. Differences in costs of production exist because countries are differently endowed with the resources required.
c. Differences in costs of production exist because countries are self – sufficient.
3. Read the text again and find the word that means:
1) The exchange of goods and services between one country and another (p. 4);
2) Making of a commercially produced product (p. 3);
3) To give one thing for another (p. 2);
4) Act of consuming (p. 5);
5) Extra stock; material left over (p. 2).
4. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words:
private enterprise, partnerships, salary, unemployment, profit, shareholders, employees, income, goods, purchase
1) The UK will have the … level close to three million.
2) It’s company policy to encourage creativity in ….
3) They were shown how to pack the … by the dispatch manager.
4) Today our greatest source of … remains the distribution of hardware.
5) If you are not satisfied with your …, you can return it to the shop.
6) If you want to know how many … our company has, you can find the information in its newsletter.
7) Most of the developed western economies are described as … systems.
8) A major goal in functioning of a business is making ….
9) Unlike sole proprietors, … can grow to be relatively large organizations.
10) The longer a person has been in a company, the higher his … and status will probably be.
5. Choose the correct form of the verb:
1) Will you hold on? Mr Smith … to the customer.
a. is speaking b. were speaking c. are speaking
2) Unemployment is very high in the area because a lot of small businesses ….
a. have closed up b. has closed up c. closes up
3) The PR manager … a presentation when a new group of visitors arrived.
a. is making b. was making c. were making
4) The magazine “City Limits” …by the publisher Terry Hornett last summer.
a. is bought b. were bought c. was bought
5) Further information … to candidates next week.
a. was sent b. will be sent c. will sent
6. Put the questions to the underlined words:
1) Sale is exchange of products or services for money. (What …?)
2) Our representatives work on a commission basis. (Whose …?)
3) I have passed your letter to the claims department. (Where …?)
4) The survey was completed last month. (When …?)
5) A new supermarket will be opened next summer. (What …?)
7. Write the letter in the appropriate order, use notes in box to complete the letter:
You work at a large record store in the centre of San Francisco. Ask your partners to send some samples of the tapes and cassettes they advertised in the last edition of “Hi-Fi News”.
1) Dear Sirs,
2) Sales Dept.
420 High St.
3) 10 May, 2006
4) Faithfully yours,
5) Music Ltd.
268 Sacramento Street
San Francisco, CA 92115
Варіант № 4
1. Translate the marked part of the text:
(1) A certain amount of government involvement is necessary in any economy to ensure an orderly and equitable society. The government of the United States – a government of the people, by the people, and for the people – serves as a rule maker, protector, and referee in the American economy.
(2) A controversial topic in economics is the question of how much government involvement in the economy is appropriate. Some believe that the government should be limited solely to providing for the nation’s defense, and they would eliminate such programs as Social Security, public welfare, public transportation, and consumer protection. Other support these programs and argue that the government should play a definite role in the economy. Most arguments for and against government involvement center around three basic goals: (1) economic efficiency; (2) equity; and (3) consumer protection.
(3) Economic efficiency involves producing the maximum amount and proper combination of goods and services from the nation’s limited productive resources. Except for general policies aimed at improving the economy’s overall performance and reducing unemployment, it is difficult to make a strong argument in favor of government involvement on the basis of economic efficiency. Most economists agree that in the production of goods and services, private enterprise is usually more efficient than government, and that government involvement should be kept to a bare minimum.
(4) Equity is a second area around which arguments focusing on the issue of government involvement center. Equity involves the question of fairness, of making sure that all people get the same opportunity to obtain the goods and services produced by the economy, regardless of their ability to pay for them.
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