Personality Traits. Foods and Energy. Effects of Alcohol on the Body (Тексты для перевода), страница 6

  Supplying your vitamin needs can sometimes be a problem if you eat a high proportion of foods that are cooked 7 ______ (with, in, at, on) high temperatures.

Snacks can be harmful when they fill you 8 ________ (up, in, down, -) but provide nothing but quick energy.

 Because you usually follow breakfast 9________  (to, into, with, by) a morning of schoolwork, you need the energy breakfast provides.

  Believing old wives’ tales can become a serious business when you are 10____ (at, off, -, on) a diet.

5. Соедините слово в правой колонке в его определением слева

  1. supplement

a) the process of combining oxygen and another element to produce energy

  1. tissue

b)something that is nourishing

      3.   oxidation

c)to add something

     4.    calorie

d)something or someone that is dangerous

      5.    nutrient

e) the material forming animal or plant cells

      6.   gastrointestinal system

f) a punishment for breaking  a law

      7.   respiratory system

g) the practice of treating illness by removing or repairing the damaged part of the body

      8.   penalty

h)  the body system that includes the organs that digest food

      9.   menace

i) the body system that includes the organs that perform the breathing function

    10.   surgery

j) a quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water one degree of centigrade

Conquering Viruses

Incomplete life. Viruses have baffled medical men for centuries. Although little was known about them, they were among the first to fall under the bullets of medical science. Jenner's vaccine against smallpox was successful in preventing cases of this virus disease. Pasteur's famous rabies vaccine was another successful attack on the virus.

None of these medical pioneers knew much about the virus they were attacking. They knew it was too small to see with a microscope. They knew it was very powerful and could not be killed with any medicine known. In fact, in Pasteur's time it was impossible even to isolate one kind of virus from another.

The virus is a mystery partly because it is so small. It can be seen only with a powerful electron microscope. It is much smaller than bacteria.

It is made of a certain acid, called RNA, and protein. A tiny core of RNA is surrounded by a shell of protein. When the virus invades a living cell, the RNA sheds the coating of protein and enters the cell. Inside the cell, the RNA manufactures more RNA cores, which leave the cell, attract protein shells, and move to invade other cells. Because the RNA molecules are similar to the genes within the cells, they can destroy cells by changing their basic composition. It is for this reason that viruses are suspected as the cause of some types of cancer.

Virus diseases. Some virus diseases are among the most deadly known to man. Polio, smallpox, influenza, mumps, and sleeping sickness are a few of the most serious. The common cold is another virus disease that is serious because it affects so many people and causes so much misery.

Fighting viruses. No one has been able to discover a chemical that will kill viruses without also harming the patient. The only effective way to prevent virus diseases is to give vaccines. You are probably familiar with many of the vaccines used against viruses.

The smallpox and rabies vaccines were great discoveries in the field of virus fighting. More recently, Dr. Jonas Salk developed a three-part vaccine that can prevent polio. His discovery was the result of years of effort. Salk developed a killed-virus vaccine that could protect against many forms of poliomyelitis . His vaccine was so successful that medical men foresaw the end of polio as a crippling disease.

In the 1950's Dr. Albert Sabin developed an even more effective vaccine. This is the live-virus type. In it the polio viruses are weakened so that they cannot cause polio. They are enough like the potent kind to cause the body to build up a permanent immunity, however. Through the use of the Sabin and Salk vaccines among both children and adults, doctors hope to eliminate the danger of polio.