Grammar: Conditional Sentences. Условные предложения

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I.  Найдите правильный вариант перевода каждого сло ва.

A.  1. the same, 2.  for,  3.  nothing, 4.  ago,  5.  than,

6.   after, 7. nearly, 8. once, 9. side by side, 10. together,

II.  while, 12. almost, 13. inside, 14. instead.

B.   1. ничего, 2. тому назад, 3. чем, 4. так как, 5. тот же самый, 6. почти, 7. вместе, 8. в то время как, 9. од нажды, 10. после, 11. рядом, 12. внутри, 13. вместо, 14. почти.

II.   Дайтерусскиеэквиваленты.

1. to contradict the conclusion, 2. to fall faster, 3. to

think over the question, drop various objects, 5. to

•'fall with the same acceleration, 6. to find inconsistencies,

7.   to time the fall, 8. to measure the velocity, 9. to at tract a lot of people, 10. to fall side by side 11. to begin the new era, 12. to demonstrate the mistake 13. to give a new method, 14. to repeat an experiment, 15. to take a coin, 16. to crumple a piece of paper, 17. to evacuate the air, 18. to cover the distance, 19. to observe the free fall, 20. to have a modern device, 21. to let the ball roll down the plane, 22. to mark the successive position.

III.  Вставьте слова по смыслу.

1. There are two ... of fundamental units. 2. ... is a fundamental unit. 3. The earth's ... is elliptical. 4. ... time is used for astronomical purposes. 5. In ... life we use mean solar time. 6. We must know at all times which ... we are using. 7. A ... eye cannot observe the free fall. 8. All bodies cover equal ... in equal times. 9. Galileo found a mathematical ... between the time and the distance.

1. sidereal, 2. every day, 3. sets, 4. units, 5. human, 6. mass, 7. units, 8. relation, 9. distances.

IV. Дайте английские эквиваленты.

1. с той же самой высоты, 2. внутри цилиндра, 3. изучение падающих тел, 4. падать слишком быстро, 5. наблюдать свободное падение, 6. катиться по наклонной плоскости, 7. использовать водяные часы, 8. отмечать последовательные положения, 9.(бросать одновременно,

10. пройти расстояние, 11. скомкать кусок бумаги, 12. иметь современные приборы, 13. включать и выключать, 14. выкачать воздух, 15. найти математическое выражение.

V.  Найдите в каждом ряду слово, противоположное по значению первому слову ряда.

1. the same: a) common, b) different, c) various; 2. large: a) general, b) all, c) small; 3. heavy: a) far, b) light, c) near; 4. fast: a) long, b) slow, c) short; 5. easy: a) great, b) interesting, c) difficult; 6. much: a) little, b) fast, c) long.

VI. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1. When do all bodies fall with the same acceleration? 2. Why is the law of falling bodies a physical paradox? 3. What did Aristotle teach? 4. What did Galileo find in Aristotle's teaching? 5. What did Galileo do at tests? 6. Why did Galileo once attract a lot of people to the leaning tower of Pisa? 7. Why are Galileo's experiments important? 8. How can you repeat Galileo's experiment? 9. What will you see if you drop an uncrumpled piece of paper and a coin inside a glass cylinder? 10. What mathematical relation did Galileo want to find? 11. What did Galileo do to observe the free fall? 12. What did he use to measure time? 13. What kind of device was a water clock?

"VII. Закончите предложения соответственно тексту.

1. In the absence of friction all bodies fall ... 2. The law of falling bodies contradicts ... 3. Aristotle taught that ... 4. Galileo found ... 5. Galileo dropped various objects from ... 6. Galileo timed the fall of the objects and ... 7. The two bodies fell side by side and ... 8. The importance of Galileo's experiments is in the fact that they gave the world ... 9. The coin will go down fast, while the piece of paper ... 10. If you crumple a piece of paper ... 11. In an evacuated glass cylinder a coin and an uncrumpled piece of paper ... 12. Since Galileo did not have fast movie cameras ...





Grammar:   Conditional Sentences.   Условныепредложения.

Text:               The Laws of Motion.

Conditional Sentences

Условные предложения реального и нереального типов

Условные предложения чаще всего вводятся союзом if(для отрицательных предложений -unless) и делятся на два основных типа:

1). Предложения с реальным условием (оно может выполняться или не выполняться). В этом случае в; главном предложении глагол употребляется в будущем; времени, в придаточных условия — в настоящем. (Может употребляться любое время изъявительного наклонения).

We shall go if the weather does not change (unless, the weather changes). Мы пойдем, если погода не изме нится.                                           *■

2). Предложения с нереальным условием (теоретическим или гипотетическим). В этом случае в главном предложении употребляется сочетание would (или модальные глаголы в прошедшем времени — could, might: и др.) с инфинитивом Indefinite, когда условие относится к настоящему или будущему времени.

Не would come today or tomorrow if he were not busy. Он бы пришел сегодня или завтра, если бы не был занят. We could measure the distance if we wanted. Мы бы могли измерить расстояние, если бы захотели.


1. Употребите соответствующее время глагола в предложениях реального условия.

1. If you drop the body it (fall) down. 2. If you go last you (be) there soon. 3. If you think over the question you (answer) it. 4. If you study the question you (come) to a definite conclusion. 5. If you go to the top of the tower you (see) the town. 6. If these bodies fall side by side they (strike) the ground simultaneously. 7. If the lecture is interesting, it (attract) a lot of people. 3. If you want to repeat Galileo's experiment, it (be) easy to do. 9. If you crumple a piece of paper and roll It into a ball, it (fall) as fast as the coin. 10. You (understand) the problem if you study the mathematical relation.

П. Закончите   предложения    (используйте подсказку).

1. I will do this work if .. 2. You won't                answer this

question   if ... 3. I will   work   this   summer              if ... 4. He

won't  get  any money if ... 5. Jack will  go               back  home

if ... 6. They will go to the cinema if ... 7.                    I will read this book if ... 8. He will study physics if ...

1. be difficult, 2. be easy, 3. be good, 4. work badly, 5. enter the university, 6. film to be interesting, 7. have time, 8. to want to become a physicist.

III. Употребите соответствующее время глагола в предложениях нереального условия.

1. If I knew his address I (give) it to you. 2. If he worked better he (not make) so many mistakes. 3. If he knew that it was difficult he (not come). 4. If there were no friction, all bodies (fall) with the same acceleration. 5. If he made a lot of experiments he (prove) the theory. 6. If he knew mathematics well he (solve) this problem. 7. If you were an astronomer you (observe) stars. 8. If I came back early I (telephone) you. 9. If he did not study so much he (not answer) so'well. 10. If he had time he (correct) your papers. 11. She (help) you if she were not too busy 12, I (travel) bv bus If I had a vacation.


IV.  Соедините два предложения, чтобы выразить нере альное условие.

Model:   I want to telephone. I have no 2 kopeck coin. If I had a 2 kopeck coin I would telephone.

1. The train doesn't stop here. There is no signal. 2. I am not a singer. I won't sing at your party. 3. I won't study mathematics. It is too difficult. 4. My brother is not here. He won't help me. 5. I am not a bird. I don't fly. 6. I won't go to her party. It is not interesting. 7. My coffee is cold. I won't drink it. 8. He won't listen to the radio. He is very busy. 9. She won't see the play. She has no ticket. 10. They won't go by plane. The weather is bad.

V.  Употребите глагол в скобках в будущем продолжен ном времени.

1. In a few days' time we (fly) to the North. 2. At eight o'clock she still (have) breakfast. 3. Next year your friend will be in his third year. It means that professor Sokolov (teach) him mathematics. 4. You (do) optics next term. 5. I'll come at 6 o'clock. Good, I (expect) you. 6. They are pulling down all the old houses in this street. I expect they (pull) down ours in a few months' time. 7. The sun (rise) in a minute. 8. Don't telephone her now. She (work) in the library. 9. When I get home my dog (sit) at the door.


I. Прочтите  интернациональные  слова,  отметьте  сходство и различие с русскими.

Natural ['nast/ral], object ['obd3akt], act [askt], action ['aekfn], tendency ['tendansi], interference [inta'fiarans] „ principle ['prinsipl], inertia [in'aija], Latin [Tastin], stop [stop], start [sta:t], presence ['prezans], hockey [Tioki], cement ['semant], line [Tain], experiment [iks'perimant], distance ['(listens], horizon [ha'raizan], horizontal ^hari-'zontal], constant ['konstant], idea [ai'dia], ideal [ai'dial].

II.   Прочтите за диктором следующие слова и словосо четания.  Переведите.  Прочтите  их  самостоятельно


the Newtonian view [5anju:'tonian Vju:], force [fo:s], unwillingness [An'wilirjnis], glance [gla:ns], halt [], assumption [a'sAmpjn], air ['ea], existence [ig'zistans], decrease [dik'rirzj., layer [Teia], unevenness [An'iivanis], surface ['sarfisj, resistance [ra'zistans].


remain [ri'mein], maintain [mein'tein], interfere [in-ta'fia], refer [ri'fa:], release [r&'hrz], continue [kan'timju:], hold [hould], admit [ad'mit], travel ['traeval], imagine fi'maedsin].


evident ['evidant], fast [fa:st], tiny ['taini], obvious f'obvias], smooth [smu:0], farther [fa :5a], straight [streit], sufficient [sa'fijant], rough [rAf], imaginary [i'msedsina-ri].

III.  Прочтите текст. Переведите, обращая особое вни мание на перевод условных предложений.

The Laws of Motion

1.  The Newtonian view is that there is no natural place for any object. If an object is at rest without any force acting upon it, it will

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