1. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите выделенный курсивом отрывок
What’s in a Raindrop?
What is acid rain? Where does it come from? Why are environmentalists around the world concerned about it.
Acid rain is caused by the burning of coal and oil in power plants, vehicles, and industries. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from these sources combine with oxygen in the air to produce sulfuric and nitric acids which fall as acid rain.
The areas that receive acid rain are often those that are least able to cope with it. Rain clouds form when air is lifted and cooled – often over mountains. Acid rain affects rivers, lakes, animals, and plants.
When lakes have been exposed to a large amount of acid rain, the animals and plants in them begin to die. Some salamander eggs will not hatch. Snails begin to disappear. Bacteria and plankton (the base of the food chain) die. Smallmouth bass, trout, and walleye cannot produce eggs. Because of a chemical reaction caused by acid rain, mercury compounds are broken down. The mercury is absorbed by the fish. Eating fish that contain mercury over a long period of time can poison animal and humans.
As the amount of acid rain in the water increases, the fish, frogs, and many insects die. Mosses that usually grow on land start to grow in the acid waters using the food of the remaining water plants. The entire ecosystem changes.
Acid rain that falls on trees and other plants damages the leaves where the plant’s food is produced. It starves and poisons the roots in the soil by interfering with usual chemical processes.
There are few places on Earth that have not been affected by acid rain. The spread of acid rain has grown as energy production has increased. Forty percent of the nitrogen oxide produced comes from vehicles. Another thirty per cent comes from electric utility plants. Researches expect the use of coal for energy production to increase three times in the next few years.
What can be done about acid rain? Scientists are working hard to make sure that more animals and plants are not destroyed. They believe that with proper controls, acid rain can be reduced. Hopefully, acid rain will some day no longer be a problem.
2. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту
a) What is the relationship between acid rain and coal?
b) What causes acid rain?
c) Why can acid rain kill fish?
d) How can acid rain affect your life?
3. Напишите 5 вопросов разного типа к содержанию всего текста и дайте на них ответы.
4. Откройте скобки, употребив глагол в скобках в нужном времени
1) If you (to live) in a noisy home, you may (to have) difficulty hearing other people talk.
2) You (to know) that noise may (to affect) your ability to learn?
3) The hazards of smoking (to be) well known.
4) You ever (to wonder) what happens to the wastewater from your home?
5) The effect of pollution (to depend) on a person’s age, general health, and lifestyle.
5. Выберите нужный модальный глагол:
a) Even though the full extend of a health threat may/can/must not be known, decisions must/can/ may be made to solve obvious problems.
b) Hazardous wastes shouldn’t/can’t/may not be dumped into streams.
c) Wastes can/must/should explode during routine management.
d) What are the problems that noise can/must/have to cause in your home environment?
e) Why can/should/may you be familiar with pollution laws?
6. Напишите предложения в пассивном залоге и переведите их
1) There are many things you can do to protect your health and your environment.
2) The Environmental Protection Agency developed the Pollutant Standard Index.
3) Some people spray pesticides along the floor to kill insects.
4) Nonsmokers are asking for smoke-free areas in public places.
5) Manufacturers may provide nutrition information on their labels.
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