A Polluted Stream (Текст для перевода и вопросы к нему)

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Вариант 4

1.  Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите выделенный курсивом отрывок

A Polluted Stream

The Mississippi River is one of the largest rivers in the world. It affects the life of millions of people living along its banks and the banks of its tributaries. One hundred and twenty years ago it was a great road for paddlewheel streamers and giant log rafts. Small boys swam in its waters and people drank the Mississippi River water without filtering it or adding chemicals to purify it. At that time the Mississippi was regarded as an unlimited source of fresh, pure water.

Today, that picture has changed. In addition to the natural pollution from the mud that is washed into the river, there are now thousands of tons of wastes from sewage disposal plants and industrial plants being poured into the water.

Pollution is basically a product of people. Men have always thrown their waste products into the waters. Today, however, there are so many industries and so many people that the old-fashioned methods of disposing of wastes do not work any longer. The Mississippi has had so much filth dumped into it that people all along the river are feeling the ill effects of the pollution.

Perhaps the most dangerous effect of the polluted river is the effect on the water supplies of the people living near it. Most of the towns and cities on the Mississippi draw their water from the river. The more pollutants or wastes, added to the river, the more chemicals added to the water supply to purify it.

The result of this situation is that the drinking water is a chemical soup.

2.  Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту

1)  How was the water of the Mississippi River useful?

2)  What are the ways water can be polluted?

3)  In what ways can sewage pollute water?

4)  Can people drink the water from the Mississippi?

3.  Напишите 5 вопросов разного типа к содержанию всего текста и дайте на них ответы

4.  Откройте скобки, употребив глагол в скобках в нужном времени

a)  Many manufacturers already (to add) smoke purifiers to their smokestacks.

b)  Polluted water of the Northwest of the USA (to kill) tons of salmon as they migrate to fresh water to lay their eggs.

c)  Thousands of people who (to stay)at the ski resort were forced to flee the village because of the typhoid epidemic in Switzerland in 1963.

d)  Doctors (to know) for years that the nicotine in cigarette smoke has several effects on the body.

e)  Why some people (to choose) to continue using aerosols products when there are substitutes?

5.  Выберите нужный модальный глагол:

1)  Cities with the problem of industrial air pollution must/can/may find ways to eliminate the smoke of coal, oil, and other types of industrial fuels.

2)  If you may/should/can see thick smoke coming from the chimney, your furnace is not operating efficiently and probably should/may/can be adjusted.

3)  Perhaps, the most tragic example of the way pollution can/have to/should affect drinking water is the case of the typhoid epidemic in Switzerland in 1963.

4)   Air travel is so common today that few people realize that their bodies have to/can/need cope with new forces while they are flying.

5)   Heavy drinking hurts not only the person who drinks, but may/have to/must cause embarrassment, financial difficulty, and worry for his family. 

6.  Напишите предложения в пассивном залоге и переведите их

a)  The chemicals man throws into the air can cause many diseases.

b)  Most communities regularly test their water to make sure that no contamination is present.

c)  Pollution has affected the water supply in another way in some areas.

d)  Environment includes all that is around you.

e)  Today scientists are studying the long-term effects of air pollution on people who breathe polluted air year after year.

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