Alternative source of power which suit Russian particularity.
In the not-too-distant future we will come to a point, when fossil fuels will run out and humans will need to find alternative sources of energy to power their cars, heat their houses and supply their industry. However, waiting for depletion of supplies, while a workable alternative isn’t established would place humans before future energy problems. For this reason, various options have been in the works for several years. It is very important to implement these alternative technologies long before the current supply will run out.
So, let’s look at several alternative power sources with their advantages and disadvantages:
1) Hydroelectric energy. This is a proven technology for electricity production, capable of generating large amounts of power. Large hydroelectric plants typically have a capacity of 300-400 megawatts. It's entirely renewable with no CO2 emissions. But, public-environmental opinion has turned against hydroelectric plants and the dams they require. Even smaller hydroelectric plants cause some damage to the landscape.
2) Wind energy. It is also renewable and has no CO2 emissions. Existing technology is already relatively high-output and affordable - individual machines with 2-3 megawatt capacity are being developed for offshore applications. But, it isn’t everywhere suitable. With output proportional to wind speed, wind turbines only make sense in coastal areas and on high ridges. Wind is not a constant energy source, so wind energy will not replace fossil or nuclear sources.
3) Photovoltaic. It is renewable with no CO2 emissions. PV modules can convert direct sunlight into electricity. Cost is exceptionally high, although prices are starting to come down. They require a large surface area and high-capacity plants.
4) Fuel cells. They are highly efficient. They could generate significant quantities of electricity without CO2 emissions and could replace engines in cars - a major source of greenhouse gases. But, they are very expensive and still dependent on fossil fuels to produce the hydrogen that they require.
5) Biomass. Biomass is a proven technology to waste products from agriculture, forestry and food processing. It is renewable and is not dependent on fossil fuels. Gases produced could be used in combined-cycle plants. Surrounding forests can act as buffer for CO2 emissions. But, burning biomass creates polluting gases and liquid waste. Collecting, transporting and storing biomass is expensive.
So, what kind of listed above alternative sources of power can be used in Russia? I think all of them, because we have large territories with different environment conditions in Russia. And, in one case we can use wind (for example, in steppes), in second – sun energy, in third - water energy, etc.
In conclusion, I want to say, that we have good alternative sources of energy to use now, and we shouldn’t wait until fossil fuels run out.
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