Understanding Motivation: the use of Theories. Motivational Theories Groups of Theories, страница 9

•  How useful is Herzberg theory in explaining motivation in the workplace? In your answer be certain to discuss both the strengths and the weaknesses of the theory.

17.   What is the major difference between content and process models of
motivation? Compare and contrast the two.

18.  What is the essence of the equity theory by S.Adams?

19.  What are possible ways of behaviour for the individual feeling a sense of inequality? Fill in the chart

Possible responses

20.  What are implications of equity theory for management?

21.  Of what value is equity theory to the study of motivation at work? Defend your answer.

22.  What are basic components in Vroom's expectancy theory? Describe the three factors of the expectancy model with respect to work motivation: effort-performance, performance outcome, valence of the outcome. Give the formula of motivation.

23.  What is the relevance of expectancy theory to management?

24.  What is Skinner's reinforcement theory all about?

25 Describe four types of reinforcement. Distinguish negative reinforcement from punishment and from positive reinforcement.

26.  Think of how to construct a positive reinforcement model.

27.  What are the probable effects on;

•  a desired behaviour that is ignored by the person or organization that desires it?

•  a desired behaviour that is punished by the person or organization that desires it?

•  an undesired behaviour that is rewarded by the person or organization that does not desire it?

28. How might a manager go about influencing a chronic absentee's effort to
come to work regularly, using positive reinforcement or punishment? Why is
ignoring the behaviour probably not going to bring about its extinction?

29. Choose the correct variant.

Perhaps the most fundamental models of motivation contain elements regarding:

1)  needs

2)  feedback

3)  money

4)  needs and money

5)  needs and feedback


1.  Word building: Complete the following sentences with words opposite in meaning to the words in the first column.

1) satisfied

Workers become ... if their jobs offer no challenge.

2) conclusive

Since the report was so ..., no recommendations were made.

3) responsible

... behaviour by staff can be costly to an organization.

4) popular

Management become ... if they fail to pay bonuses.

5) respect

No manager likes a subordinate to be ... .

6) secure

A worker who feels ...  in his job will probably not be committed to the firm he works for.

7) social

People who work ...   hours, for example at night-time, generally receive extra pay.

8) efficient

Nowadays, it is not easy to get rid of an employee who is ...

2. Match up these words with the definitions that follow.







catching on

1)  the most somebody or something is capable of

2)  system of lower and higher ranks

3)  respected, admired

4)  a person's position in relation to others

5)  final; putting an end to uncertainty

6)  feeling

7)  becoming popular or fashionable



Think ahead

Key concepts and term