The main purpose of these scheduling innovations is not to reduce the total number of hours during which organization members perform jobs, but to provide workers with greater flexibility in the exact hours during which they must perform their jobs. Flextime or flexible working hours programs allow workers to complete v their jobs within a forty-hour workweek, which they arrange themselves. The choices of starting and finishing times can be as flexible as the organizational situation will allow. Workers can choose to come in at six o'clock in the morning and quit early in the afternoon, for example. Or to arrive late and leave late. Most companies that are experimenting with flexible working hours set a core time, maybe from ten in the morning until three in the afternoon, during which employees must be present. Based upon various kinds of organizational studies, flextime programs seem to have some positive organizational effects. One researcher, for example, has reported that flextime contributes to greater job satisfaction, which typically results in greater production. Other investigations conclude that flextime programs can better motivate workers. Although many well-known companies have decided to adopt flextime programs, more related research must be conducted to assess their true worth.
The Managerial Grid
The final human relations-oriented area that we will discuss in this chapter involves a concept known as the managerial grid. It too is related to motivating organization members. The managerial grid is a basic model describing various managerial styles or ways in which managers can relate to their subordinates. This grid is based on the idea that managerial styles can be described by means of two primary attitudes of a manager: (1) concern for people; and (2) concern for production. On the grid, each of these attitudes is placed on an axis, scaled 1 through 9, and used to identify five main managerial styles. The grid thus yields five major managerial styles and lists the characteristics of each. Figure 7.7 depicts the managerial grid.
The main point of the managerial grid is that the 9, 9 management style is the ideal style. Managers having this style are high in their concern for people, high in their concern for production, and are generally seen as contributing to the development of positive human relations. Correspondingly, managers having any other style have lesser degrees of concern for people and/or production, and are generally seen as contributing less to the development of positive human relations within the organization.
1. What is job design?
2. What are two approaches to searching for a balance between job demands and the capacity of staff to satisfy them?
3. What are strategies of matching people to jobs ?
4. What are strategies of matching jobs to people?
5. Speak on the difference between job range and job depth.
6. Explain various job design strategies for motivating employees and say whether these statements are true or false:
1) Job enlargement has been very successful in motivating employees.
2) Job rotation and job enlargement are essentially the same.
3) Job enrichment includes building an opportunity for employee growth into the job situation.
Can you ...
• Define motivation.
• Sketch the need-want satisfaction chain.
• Explain the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
• Give three classes of motivation theory.
• Name four content theories.
• Name three process theories.
• Define job design.
• Give examples of matching people to jobs.
• Outline the possibilities of matching jobs to people.
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