Understanding Motivation: the use of Theories. Motivational Theories Groups of Theories, страница 8

2.  Recognise that failure to respond also has reinforcing consequencies. Lack of reward thus can also influence behaviour.

3.  Tell people what they must do to be rewarded. If employees have standards against which to measure the job, they can arrange their own feedback to let them self-judgments about their work.

4.  Tell people what they are doing wrong. Few people like to fail; most want to get positive rewards. A manager who withholds rewards from subordinates should give them a clear idea of why the rewards are not forthcoming. The employees can then adjust their behaviour accordingly rather than waste time trying to discover what behaviour will be ewarded.

5.  Do not punish anyone in front of others. Constructive criticism is useful in eliminating undesired behaviour; so also is punishment, when necessary. However, criticizing or punishing anyone in front of others lowers the individual's self-respect and self-esteem. Furthermore, other members of the work group may sympathise with the punished employee and resent the supervisor.

6.  6. Be fair. Make the consequences equal to the behaviour. Do not cheat an employee out of just rewards; if someone is a good worker, say so. Some managers find it difficult to praise; others find it difficult to counsel or tell an employee about what is being done wrong. A person who is overrewarded may feel guilty, and one who is underrewarded may become angry.

Concept check

1.  In motivating, what role do rewards play?

2.  What are two groups of rewards? What is the difference between them?

3.  Which of them is of greater importance for employees? Why?

4.  Make lists of all theories of motivation covered in this READING. Use these to draw up a classification of theories.

5.  What are three major groups of theories? What aspects of motivation do they deal with?

6.  What and whose study did all motivation theories stem from?

7.  What is the primary motivator according to F. Taylor?

8.  Speak on the Taylor's system of compensation and motivation.

9.  List and give examples of the levels in the need hierarchy. Fill in the diagram

10.  What is the process of satisfying human needs according to Maslow?

11.  What are some difficulties in applying the need hierarchy model?

12.  How do the hygiene and motivational factors differ?

13.  What is organizational morale?

14.  What is Herzberg's two-factor theory all about? In your answer be sure to identify and define the two types of factors.

15.  Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

1)  According to Maslow people are not concerned about achieving their personal goals in life unless they have satisfied their physiological needs

2)  Physiological needs include the need for companionship.

3)  According to Maslow, esteem needs generally include both the desires for self-respect and respect for others.

4)  Senior managers who want to become company directors have self-
actualisation needs which they wish to satisfy.

5) Maslow's hierarchy is an objective description of human needs.

6)   Herzberg, like Maslow, believes that people satisfy their needs

7)  Herzberg believed that workers would not necessarily work harder if they earned more money.

8)  Job security is one of the most important factors which motivates employees.

9)     The purpose of job enrichment programmes is to increase worker

     16.     Compare Maslow's model of motivation with Herzberg's one. Describe the
relationships among these two content theories of motivation:

•  In what way is Maslow's need theory helpful in understanding motivation?