Технология изготовления питьевого йогурта (статья на английском языке)

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National security of Russia largely depends on the production of agricultural products. Milk, until recently, has been strategic basis of raw materials, which ensures the production of drinking normalized milk, yogurt, as well as dairy cultures in the necessary volumes and excluded the so-called "milk riots" of the consumers [1-4].

At present, Russia produces different kinds of yogurt. Depending on the technology that determines the characteristics of the finished product we differentiate between yoghurt, manufactured in thermostatic way with not disturbed clot and thick consistency and yoghurt manufactured in reservoir way with impaired clot and also drinking yogurt[5-12].

In other countries the technology of drinking yogurt is different as the products after fermentation is mixed, homogenized, cooled to storage temperature (5 ° C) and poured. In our country, during manufacturing process of drinking yoghurt the product after fermentation and mixing is partially cooled in the reservoir or in the stream to storage temperature (4 ± 2 ° C) and poured. In this case, milk protein clot is destroyed in the process of cooling and poorly restores its structure, so the ability to restore and to retain moisture gain importance. There are several ways to improve these characteristics [5-12].

One of them - the choice of ferments. It is known that microorganisms contained in yoghurt ferments during the process fermentation of milk form milk-protein clusters with different types of consistency. For drinking yogurt ferments with viscous consistency are used with varied degree of viscosity. On the structural properties of yogurt the temperature of cultivation of ferments is influenced. Lower temperatures of fermentation gives products, characterized by more significant stability of consistency, but excessive viscosity.

Another way to obtain a homogeneous, viscous not stratifying yogurt, is the use of various additives. Applying the concentrations of certain additives containing protein (dry milk, milk protein concentrates, soy protein, etc.), results in increase of dry matter content and increase of the density and viscosity. In the production of yogurt stabilizers can also be used [50].

Recent research shows that the most promising is the use of multi-component stabilizing system containing gel formers and thickening agents. They create in yoghurt structures, exhibiting good resistance to destruction and greater ability to restore if compared with one - component regulators [5-12].

Thus, the best organoleptic, structural and mechanical characteristics and moisture retaining capacity of drinking yogurt for a long period of storage were provided by multi - component stabilizing additives with significant thickening properties [50].

Yoghurt is becoming an increasingly popular product. Its unique nutritional properties with a wide variety of flavors, practical and attractive packaging, lower cost compared with other types of products make it a real success with consumers.

In the dairy industry there are many areas for development and improvement. This is due to the fact that milk, itself as well as all its derivatives - is still a perishable product. In this regard, one of the main directions of development is the way to improve packaging and methods of its sealing [5-12, 50].

Packaging for drinking milk, yoghurt and milk culture is very diverse, and so are the problems associated with its production, filling it with the finished product and its subsequent sealing [13-18, 50].

The designed packing equipment will serve for production in PET bottles, which is a promising way to solve the problems associated with packaging, as PET bottle has a number of advantages over other packaging materials:

1. there is the possibility of aseptic filling;

2. storage period of product in the packaging fully complies with all existing state standards;

3. ease of application of proprietary labels;

4. configuration of the tubes and bottles can be different;

5. both the bottle and the stopper are easy to manufacture, and there is a possibility of their full processing, with no significant pollution of the atmosphere, as in the case of packaging in TETRAPAK;

6. PET bottle 0,5 L - is the most ergonomic, packaging for drinking dairy products from all the existing ones:

- It is stable;

- Comfortable in the hand;

- It is easy to open;

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