Past Simple (Простое прошедшее время)

Страницы работы

Содержание работы

PastSimple. Простое прошедшее время.

(a) Мы используем Past simple tense,чтобы рассказать о событиях или ситуациях в прошлом.

Очень часто мы употребляем Past simple tense c такими словами и фразами, как:

 yesterday, last night, last week, last month, last year, last summer(autumn, winter, spring),

at six(seven...) o'clock on Sunday(Monday...),an hour(a week...) ago, the other day, in 1994(2009), during the war(the revolution..)

 - In 1712 Newcomen invented a new steam engine.

- He made his engine more powerful.

- On Monday he came to the office by taxi.

- I  became an engineer two years ago.

 (b) Многие глаголы в Pastsimpletense оканчиваются на -ed или d. Такие глаголы называются правильными. Например:

- He improved the design of his engine.

- The steam condensed outside the cylinder.

 (c) Но много частоупотребляемых глаголов - неправильные (irregular). Это означает, что pastsimple не заканчивается на-ed. Например:

1. Глаголы, в которых изменяется гласная в корне.

 2. Глаголы, в которых изменяется гласная в корне и добавляется -d или –t.

 3. Глаголы, в которых изменяется последняя d на t.

 4. Глаголы, в которых одинаковая форма infinitive и Past simple.

 5. Глаголы, в которых разная грамматическая основа.

 4. Глаголы, в которых одинаковая форма infinitive и Past simple.

 5. Глаголы, в которых разная грамматическая основа.

 Список неправильных глаголов смотритеAppendix 2.

 Но некоторые глаголы могут быть правильными и неправильными:

Список этих глаголов смотритеAppendix 2.

(d)В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях с Pastsimple мы используем вспомогательный глагол did/didn't + инфинитив (do/open/rain и т.д.): 

- Did he make his engine more powerful?

- How did he make his engine more powerful?

- He didn’t improve the design of his engine.

 -  Why did Newcomen’s engine have poor efficiency?  

- Parsons’ turbine did not have a gearbox.

 Но с глаголомbe (was/were) мы не употребляемdid:


- Was Watt’s engine more efficient?

 (е) Формой past simple от глагола be (am/is/are) является was/were:

I/he/she/it  - was

 we/you/they  - were

Newcomen’s engine was a high speed engine.

1. Read the text and complete each space with the correct form of the verb in parentheses.

Through his accomplishments in product design, Raymond Loewy (1) ___________ (help) to establish industrial design as a profession. By the end of his life, his career (2) ___________ (encompass) all applications of modern industrial design, from consumer products to interior building space, packaging, and transportation.

Long before his death, Loewy (3) _________ (become) one of the known industrial designers of the 12th century and his vision of beauty through the use of streamlined, highly functional forms (4) ______ (shape) modern industrial design in the United States. For decades, his work (5) _______ (permeate) the nation’s lifestyle and influenced and (6) ________ (continue) to influence today countless aspects of American life.

Fill in the blanks using these linking words and expressions.

suddenly, when, but, and, one day, in the end, then

Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879. 1  ____ he was a child, he was not a very good

student 2 _____ he liked Physics very much. 3 _____, his father showed him a compass. The compass made him wonder about the connection between the needle4_the north pole. 5 __, his interest in Physics increased even more. He moved to Switzerland to study and finished his studies in 1900. In 1913, he became director of Physics in an institute in Berlin. In 1916, he published his Theory of Relativity which 6 ___ made him famous all over the world. It was difficult for Albert to prove his theories but 7 ___ he succeeded. He received the Nobel prize for Physics in 1921. He died in Princeton in 1955.

Complete the missing words.

  1. Who  __ Albert Einstein?
  2. When __ he born ?
  3. What ___he prove?
  4.  ___there televisions before Einstein?
  5. What ___ he  received the Nobel prize for?

Read again about Einstein and underline the verbs in the past. Write their infinitive forms.

Example: was - be

Read the following passage about the human brain and put the verbs in brackets into the right form.

The brain 1_____(be) the organ that2______(place) us in a position of superiority over all the other creatures on Earth. In the 6th century ВС the Creek philosopher Pythagoras3______(write) that the brain 4____(be) the organ of the mind. Herophilus of Chalcedon (about 300 ВС) 5____(say) that the brain 6___(be) the central part of the nervous system. He rightly 7___(associate) nerves with movement and sensations. Medieval thinkers 8____(have) a different view. They 9_____(believe) that analysis, reason, and memory 10___(occupy) three different areas that were interconnected. Today many scientists "____(accept) a different theory, the Theory of Modules. This theory 12______(explain) that the brain has mechanisms that interpret and follow orders from the mind. The brain 13____(store) experiences and 14____(reach) conclusions. Our senses 15____(convert) the external stimuli into electric signals that the neurons send to a "transit area". The information then 16____(enter) the short term memory and, after a few seconds, it17____ (go) to the long term memory. There, it 18____ (connect) with data that is

already stored. When the information 19___ (be) important and well organised, we remember it. Different people often interpret the same information in different ways. This20_____(be) because we all21_____(have) different education,22_____(accumulate) different experiences and23___(have) different styles of perception.

Now complete the following questions with the correct form of the verbs in brackets and write the answers.

  1. What ____ the brain according to Pythagoras? (be)


  1. How ______ Herophilus _______ the brain? (describe)


  1. What _______ analysis, reason and memory according to medieval thinkers? (be)


 Translate questions. Do you use a similar structure for questions in the past in your language? Discuss in class.

 Arrange the scrambled words to make up sentences.

1. uncountable/There are/ chemical bonds

2. also called / The electric / charge / is / electricity

3. good / Copper / a / conductor / is

4. charges attract / Like / and / charges repel / unlike

5. The / hemisphere / right / the power of synthesis / holds.

Complete a rule for questions in the past simple.

When we make questions in the past with the verb be, we use _____ with singular nouns and

_____ with plural nouns before the subject.

We use the auxiliary ____ in questions with main verbs. The main verb keeps the infinitive form.

Похожие материалы

Информация о работе