The purpose of induction is to provide the new employee with the necessary information about the company. It familiarizes the new person with the duties and benefits of employment. The employee receives pamphlets, fills in forms, gets a pass issued, and has fringe benefits explained. Management sees to it that the employee is provided with an explanation of the company history, its products or services, and the organization structure. The general purpose of this phase is to see what the important rules, policies, and procedures of the organization are.
The induction process is accomplished through the interaction of the employee, the immediate supervisor, and the personnel specialist if there is one. The time induction requires may be divided between one-to-one interactions and large-group education.
Orientation continues what induction began. The new employee—having been exposed to the organization's formal systems, paperwork, and policies—is now introduced to the immediate working environment and соworkers. The purpose of this phase is to have the new employee become oriented to the working environment and operating reality.
The employee and manager will discuss specifics of the work: location, rules, equipment, procedures, and plans for training. In addition, the employee and manager have the opportunity to discuss and reinforce performance expectations that were initially discussed during the interview process. The new employee may be paired with an experienced employee for a period to help the socialization process. The pairing and one-to-one discussions are an attempt to reduce the employee's anxiety through meeting other people and allowing him or her the opportunity to discuss expectations and actual performance. The informal group further provides this type of feedback as the new employee interacts in the work environment.
The orientation phase is extremely important. Having the new employee become comfortable with the superior and the peer group is a "socialization'' process. It needs to be planned and supported by management.
5. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training and development programs in an organization have different goals. Let’s examine each in detail.
v Training: Purposes and Techniques
Training supplies the skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed by individuals or groups to improve their abilities to perform their present jobs. Training for an employee is continuous throughout organizational life. First, training is used to give employees skills or to brush up existing, skills to the level necessary to perform when new to the job. As the job changes or as an employee demonstrates the need for additional skills, the organization provides more training.
The Importance of Training. The crucial nature of training can be seen through the attitudes and expenditures of U.S. corporations. Organizations cannot compete without competent, well-trained employees. U.S. corporations are spending about $30 billion annually to meet these needs.
Types of Training. Various training techniques can be employed by management. A person can be trained off the job in a classroom setting and then be sent to the workforce. Another approach is to use OJT, or on-the job training. The person is trained while the job is being performed; training usually entails watching a fellow worker. A third approach is to use vestibule training, in which a simulated work environment is constructed and the trainee is placed in the environment to train without the pressure of meeting production figures.
One successful form of OJT is coaching of the employee by the supervisor. It has these basic steps:
1. Discussion of the process by the supervisor.
2. Demonstration of the task by the supervisor.
3. Individual performance by the trainee.
4. Feedback following the performance.
Чтобы распечатать файл, скачайте его (в формате Word).
Ссылка на скачивание - внизу страницы.