1. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите выделенный курсивом отрывок
Why is Effective Land Use Important?
In recent years people have begun to realize the harm that can come from neglecting or misusing the land. For example, over the past several hundred years from 15-22 centimeters of rich topsoil has been lost through erosion. This occurred partly because farm lands were left bare during non-growing times. Today in the United States, many farmers leave plants in the ground after crops have been harvested. The roots then help keep wind and water from eroding the soil.
Today farmers are aware of other ways to save soil. They may seed crops using a method called contour planting. With contour planting the field is plowed crosswise instead of up and down. The rows curve to the slope of the land. Each row acts as a tiny dam and keeps water from running down the slopes. Instead the water soaks into the soil.
Strip farming is another method of planting designed to hold water in the soil. The farmer alternates rows of grain with a crop such as timothy hay. The plants grow together. When water begins to roll down a slope, the hay which grows closer to the ground than the grain slows it down. The water then begins to soak into the ground.
Crop rotation is used to restore valuable chemicals to worn-out soil. Corn, for example, uses up nitrogen in soil. Soybeans restore nitrogen. In crop rotation, crops which restore nitrogen are grown, harvested, and the remains plowed under. Then crops which use up nitrogen are planted.
Increasingly, efforts are being made to plant seedlings in areas where trees have been removed or burned down. People are also beginning to reuse, or recycle, products such as paper that a re made from wood.
2. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту
1) What is crop rotation?
2) How can conservation practices help protect your health?
3) What is the relationship between soil and food?
4) How does strip-cropping help soil hold water?
3. Напишите 5 вопросов разного типа к содержанию всего текста и дайте на них ответы
4. Откройте скобки, употребив глагол в скобках в нужном времени
a) Many people (to believe) that the world (to have) plenty of water.
b) If we are going (to continue) having enough good water, we (to need) to take conservation measures.
c) This (to mean) that we must (to stop) wasting and polluting water.
d) How conservation (to affect) health?
e) If the top layer of soil (to be lost) by erosion, the land (to become) unfit for growing crops.
5. Выберите нужный модальный глагол:
1) Fertilizers can/should/may be added to soil to provide plants with needed minerals.
2) Reforestation is can/may/must take place where forest fires have destroyed trees.
3) You can/may/must buy a permit to hunt.
4) Killing too many game animals could/have to/must cause larger population of insects, mice, and rats.
5) Illness or death must/can/have to result from inhaling too much carbon monoxide.
6. Напишите предложения в пассивном залоге и переведите их
a) Nature causes some air pollution.
b) Particulates can affect some parts of your body.
c) A Japanese study of over one thousand birth shoed a low birth weight of babies in high noise areas.
d) Some cities are promoting the use of mass transit.
e) Cooling towers reduce the pollution.
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