1. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите выделенный курсивом отрывок
Why is Water Pollution a Health Problem?
Today most rivers, lakes, and streams are overburdened with wastes that are dumped into them. Most waterways can no longer clean themselves as they once did. They are becoming heavily polluted.
Wastes found in waterways include chemical pollutants from diaries, canneries, textile plants, laundry, oil tankers, refineries, paper mills, and other industries. Sand, fertilizer, and pesticides drain from the soil into surrounding waters and cause pollution. Litter and junk visually pollute the waters.
Wastes also come into the waterways from sewage that is poured into them. Some of the sewage has been treated so that solid materials settle out. Some sewage has undergone secondary treatment to dissolve inorganic matter as well. In few cases, the sewage has been given a third treatment. This does the best job of all in removing harmful substances. However, there are still some communities that dump untreated sewage into nearby waters.
Thermal pollution, or heat pollution, is another problem today. Many industries use water from nearby waterways and then dump it back as hot water. The heated water may kill certain water plants and animals. There is less oxygen, too, in water heated by thermal pollution.
Heated water also encourages growth of plants called algae. As these plants decay, they rob the water of oxygen needed to help it clean itself.
To prevent thermal pollution, water should be cooled and aerated, or exposed to the air. Only them should industries return the water to lakes and streams.
2. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту
a) How are streams and lakes polluted?
b) What is the difference between primary and secondary sewage treatment?
c) Why are waste treatment plants important to the environment?
d) Why is thermal pollution dangerous to living things in oceans, rivers, and lakes?
3. Напишите 5 вопросов разного типа к содержанию всего текста и дайте на них ответы.
4. Откройте скобки, употребив глагол в скобках в нужном времени
1) As sewage (to enter) a plant for treatment, it (to flow) through a screen.
2) After sewage (to be screened), it (to pass) into a grit chamber.
3) Your community (to have) one or more sewage treatment plants?
4) Many factories and industries (to use) cool water from nearby rivers and lakes.
5) Water pollution may (to be) due to several reasons.
5. Выберите нужный модальный глагол
a) During a heavy rain pesticides and chemicals can/must/have to be washed into the rivers and lakes.
b) Untreated sewage can/have to/must contain disease-causing organisms.
c) To protect wildlife, environmentalists can/may/must remain natural.
d) Should/Must/May the industry be forced to meet pollution standards?
e) Thermal pollution may/have to/can be reduced by using cooling towers.
6. Напишите предложения в пассивном залоге и переведите их
1) To cut down further on air pollution, many communities have imposed laws.
2) In some apartment buildings, trash compactors have replaced incinerators.
3) Recycling centers collect cans/ newspapers, and glass.
4) Some scientists are predicting that a major earthquake will occur in California in the near future.
5) The environment provides the food, air, and water you need for life processes.
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