6. The chief characteristics of the Age of Reason, with its empirical approach to experience, are evident in the works of Van Dyck. He was not English by birth, but, being always sensitive to national peculiarities of the people among whom he lived, Van Dyck popularized the qualities of atmosphere and the beauty of line that are most typical of English painting. He was the first to begin a tradition to represent his sitters against a landscape background. This feature became prominent for English portraits, distinguishing them from the Continental practice. A typical example of his art is the portrait of Charles I: an elegant and imposing figure of the king, sitting on a magnificent horse, is shown against a peaceful and very romantic background.
7. Classicism found in England many supporters because it reflected English love of clarity, elegance and restraint. It is useless to look for the psychological depth in the English portraits of this period. The aim of Reynolds and Hogarth was not to explore individual psychology but rather to depict a character. But English Classicism was not a straightforward movement: it included different tendencies. If Hogarth was a painter who always had his feet on the ground, William Blake was a visionary and a philosopher. In his work, both as a poet and as a painter, he glorified imagination as the only creative approach to experience.
8. Romantic movement of the 19th century revealed the English passion for sentiment and Nature. Landscape and seascape surpass portraiture in significance. It is interesting that, during the Romantic period, the attitude of English artists toward nature became at once more imaginative and more exact. During the previous periods there was something artificial about landscapes. Gainsborough, for instance, rarely went to the countryside to paint nature. Usually he built his landscapes in a box with a piece of glass for a lake and dolls for human figures. On the other hand, both Turner and Constable went to the mountainous regions of North Wales, the Lake District and Derbyshire, when they wanted to paint. And they treated the anatomy of trees, the shape of waves and weather effects in the spirit of almost scientific curiosity.
9. As a sort of summary, it is necessary to point out that English painting has always been more closely dependent than most European schools on the national traditions and the national sensibility. That is why it speaks a language that is less universal than does painting in Italy or France. But if we take pains to understand the language of the English painters, the English school begins to produce a really powerful effect on us.
industrious (strenuous) worker – скромный труженик
prosperous middle-class family – богатая купеческая семья
the family's darling - любимчик
incredible vitality - жизнелюбие
passionforart – любовь к искусству
to take after one's father – быть сыном своего отца
faultless taste – безупречный вкус
the cavaliers and courtiers – кавалеры и придворные
official but without officialism – парадный, но ничего официозного нет
thrill (tremor) - трепет
a detached observer – равнодушный наблюдатель
premature (untimely) death – преждевременная смерть
the downfall of values he fostered and glorified – крах ценностей, которые он прославлял
a pictorial style – живописный стиль
posterity – потомство
head and shoulders above - на голову выше
clear-cut Romanticists - ярко выраженные романтики
one's vision of - видение
the sensation of the "here and now" of things depicted - ощущение сиюминутности изображаемых явлений
to paint in the clearest tones - пишет то, что видит, ясными красками
like sunrays reflected in a prism - как солнечный луч, преломившийся через призму
the light effects - Освещение
more personal art - главные черты
to render them more mysterious and remote - наделить их особой значимостью
to "estrange" them - «остраннить» их
dream-like quality -
to be concerned with structure of the landscape in depth - озабочен передачей глубинной перспективы пространства
heap clouds - облака
almost sculptural (three-dimensional) forms - почти скульптурной рельефностью
a play of colour to be seen in the semi-transparent vapour - похожи на полупрозрачную дымку
the enthusiasts of Turner – любители Тернера
and the reverse is equally true - обычно равнодушны на пейзажах Констебла
1. Constable and Turner are head and shoulders above their contemporaries. They are clear-cut Romanticists. Their vision of world and artistic temperament are different.
2. In the paintings of Constable striking the sensation of the "here and now" of things depicted. He paints in the clearest tones. His favourite colours are blue and green that like sunrays reflected in a prism. The light effects he use not only to emphasize the main features in the subject matter, but also give them special significance.
3. Turner's personal nature is usually stressed by art critics. The light effects are used to "estrange" the objects.
4. Clouds on the landscapes of Constable affect its almost sculptural (three-dimensional) forms, but on canvas Turner, a play of colour to be seen in the semi-transparent vapour. All these and many other particular artistic techniques and attitude, uncovered careful analysis, show how the original Each of these great artists as dissimilar they are to each other.
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