A typical example of English painting of that period is the Wilton Diptych, called so because Wilton House is the place where it has been kept for two centuries. It consists of two oak panels, the first of which shows the young King Richard II kneeling in front of three patron saints of England.
The chief characteristics of the Age of Reason, with its empirical approach to experience, are evident in the works of Van Dyck.
In the second part of the 18th century the dominant force in painting was Classicism, which found in England many supporters because it reflected English love of clarity, elegance and restraint. It is useless to look for the psychological depth in the English portraits of this period.
Romantic movement of the 19th century revealed the English passion for sentiment and Nature. Landscape and seascape surpass portraiture in significance. It is interesting that, during the Romantic period, the attitude of English artists toward nature became at once more imaginative and more exact. During the previous periods there was something artificial about landscapes.
the pictorial art – изобразительное искусство
stained glass - цветное стекло, витражное стекло
manuscriptillumination - иллюстрированная рукописная книга
patron - покровитель; патрон; шеф; клиент; постоянный посетитель; заступник; постоянный покупатель; меценат; заказчик; абонент; кинозритель; сторонник; завсегдатай
saintsofEngland – святые Англии
lively - живой (об описании и т. п.); полный жизни; весёлый; оживлённый; быстрый; яркий (о впечатлении, цвете и т. п.); сильный; свежий (о ветре); живо; весело; быстро отскакивающий (о мяче); резвый; кипучий; бойкий; оживленно; живенький
astraightforwardmovement – прямое движение
avisionary - мечтатель; мистик; духовидец; провидец; прорицатель; пророк; фантазёр; визионер; склонный к галлюцинациям; мечтательница; дальновидный мыслитель; человек, наделённый даром предвидения; непрактичный человек; человек, подверженный галлюцинациям; стратег
tosurpasssmth - превосходить; перегонять; обгонять; превышать; превзойти; превысить; перегнать; перекрывать; перевыполнять; опережать; превзойти (кого-л., в чем-л.)
the anatomy of trees – анатомия деревьев
kneeling in front of – на коленях перед…
the banner of St. George – знамя Святого Георга
overlappingperiods – охватывающий периоды
Englishsensibility - английская чувствительность; восприимчивость; обидчивость; эмоциональность
a sitter - натурщик
an imposing figure – импозантная фигура
to have one's feet on the ground - здравым смыслом, твердо стоять на ногах
to be a visionary – быть провидцем
imaginative - богатый поэтическими образами, одаренный богатым воображением
pedantic - педантичный
a universal language – универсальный язык
1. The best pictorial achievements was done by English painters during the two widely separated periods. The first of these periods was the Middle Ages.
2. The achievements were mostly in stained glass and manuscript illumination.
3. It is difficult to judge since very little survived. Nevertheless, from those works that did survive it may be concluded that the level of quality was high.
4. A typical example of English painting of that period is the Wilton Diptych, called so because Wilton House is the place where it has been kept for two centuries. It consists of two oak panels, the first of which shows the young King Richard II kneeling in front of three patron saints of England. In the second panel, King Richard is shown among eleven angels encircling Virgin Mary who holds in her arms Infant Christ. One of the angels carries the banner of St. George and Christ holds his hands as if to take the banner and give it to Richard. It is one of the best known and loved paintings in England. It represents the best traditions of medieval English painting, with its attention to the beauty of line, its rich colour and fine craftsmanship.
5. In the early fifteenth century this tradition came to an end, and for the next three hundred years pictorial art in England was dominated by the Continental influences: all leading artists who worked in England were foreign by origin and training. The native tradition was reborn only in the first quarter of the 18th century. With Van Dyck, Hogarth, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Blake, Turner and Constable, English painting became lively and original. And it was not by chance that England's most significant contribution to painting was made during three overlapping periods of European culture: the Age of Reason, the Age of Classicism, and the Age of Romanticism. Each of these periods emphasized one or the other of the qualities associated with English sensibility.
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