The Present Perfect Tense. Читання тексту "At an airport" і ведення бесіди по темі

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означають період часу, який почався в минулому і тривав до моменту мовлення: uptonow, uptothepresent до цього часу; lately нещодавно, за останній час; recentlyостаннім часом; sofarдо цього часу; sinceвідтоді; notyetще не:

e.g. Up to now we have read two English books.

Have you seen him recently?

I haven’t done anything since I left.

До цього часу ми прочитали дві англійські книжки.

Ви бачили його останнім часом?

Я нічого не зробив, відколи виїхав.

- що означають період часу, який ще не закінчився: todayсьогодні; thisweek (month, year, morning…) цього тижня( місяця,  року, сьогодні вранці…):

e.g. My friends have not arrived today.

Have you had breakfast this morning?

Мої друзі не приїхали сьогодні.

Ви снідали сьогодні вранці?

- з прислівниками неозначеного часу і частотності : everколи-небудь, neverніколи,oftenчасто, seldomрідко, alreadyвже, justщойно, yetще:

e.g. I have often heard  him tell the tale.

Have you ever thought about it?

Я часто чув, як він розповідав цю історію.

Ви коли-небудь думали про це?

PresentPerfectне вживається з обставинними словами та словосполученнями, які уточнюють час минулої дії, наприклад: yesterdayвчора, thedaybeforeyesterdayпозавчора, lastweek (month, year) минулого тижня (місяця, року), anhouragoгодину тому, twodaysagoдва дні тому, onMondayу понеділок, inJulyу липні, in 1945 в 1945 тощо, а також у запитаннях з питальним словом when. З такими обставинами часу вживається Past Indefinite:

e.g. She went two days ago.

When did you see her?

Вона поїхала два дні тому.

Коли ви бачили її?

Місцезнаходженняalready, just, recently, still and yet

у реченні.




Yes, I’ve just started.

Yes, I’ve already started work.

Yes, I’ve recently started work.

Yes, I’ve started work recently

Just ставимо перед Past Participle.

Already and recently зазвичай ставимо перед Past Participle або в кінці речення.


No, I haven’t started work yet.

No, I still haven’t started work.

Yet ставимо в кінці заперечного речення.

Still має стояти перед have (has).


Have you already started work?

Have you started work already?

Have you started work  yet?

Already можна ставити перед Past Participle або в кінці речення.

Yetзазвичай ставиться в кінці запитання.


1.Translate into Ukrainian.

1.They have finally decided to change that old building into a museum. 2.She has painted her room. 3.He has just finished typing all the letters. 4.My relatives have received the parcel. 5.Mary has switched on the light. 6.Our grandfather has travelled much. 7.The students have solved the problem. 8.Robert has come back. 9.Have you ever been to Moscow? 10.I have never heard about her. 11.He hasn’t come yet. 12.How many trees have you planted this year? 13.Have you had your dinner already? 14.They have seen “Swan Lake” at the Bolshoi Theatre. 15.The director has signed the order.

2.Write three forms of the verbs.

to be, to become, to begin, to blow, to break, to bring, to buy, to come, to catch, to choose, to do, to drink, to drive, to eat, to fall, to feel, to forget, to give, to go, to grow, to hear, to keep, to know, to leave, to lose, to make, to meet, to pay, to read, to rise, to run, to see, to send, to show, to sit, to sleep, to stand, to strike, to take, to teach, to think, to wake, to win, to write.

3.Make the following interrogative and negative.

1.I have seen this film. 2.He has read your letter. 3.She has passed her English exam. 4.I have read the novel in the original. 5.They have moved in. 6.I have already had my lunch. 7.He has completed his course already. 8.I have been to London. 9.The train has left. 10.He has forgotten his Spanish.

4.Complete the following situations according to the model.

M O D E L: It’s cold in the room (the window,to be opened, for a long time).

The window has been opened for a long time.

1.It’s warm (the weather, to be fine, all week). 2.Peter is absent (he, to be ill, for a week). 3.She can’t show you the way there (she, never, to be there). 4.He may go to the cinema (he, to do his work). 5.I can’t say anything about this film (not to see it, yet). 6.We may go for a walk (the rain, to stop). 7.She knows English well (to live in England, for three years). 8.Don’t describe the place to me (I, to be there, several times). 9.I know him very well (be friends since childhood). 10.You look wonderful (I, just, come back, after, a good rest).

5.Answer the following questions.

M O D E L: Have you brought my book?

-Yes, I have. (No, I haven’t).

Has he brought your book?

-Yes, he has. (No, he hasn’t (yet)).

1.Have you seen the new film? 2.Have you read my letter? 3.Have you passed your exams? 4.Has he phoned her today? 5.Has she sent them a telegram? 6.Have they read the article without dictionary? 7.Have they left? 8.Have you had your dinner?

6.Answer the following questions, using the Present Perfect Tense.

1.Why can’t you give the book back? (not finish, yet). 2.Why can’t you repeat the question? (not hear). 3.Are they leaving? (not change their plans). 4.What’s the matter with you? I think … (catch cold). 5.Why is it so quiet in the house? (everybody, leave). 6.Where will you go in summer? (not decide, yet). 7.How long has this film been on? (for about a week). 8.Have you ever been late for classes? (never). 9.How are they? – I don’t know (not see them lately). 10.Where is yesterday’s newspaper? (just, throw out).

7.Complete the sentences. Use already + Present Perfect.







What time is Paul arriving?

Do Sue and Bill want to see the film?

Don’t forget to phone Tom.

When is Martin going away?

Do you want to read the newspaper?

When does Linda start her new job?

He’s already arrived.

No, they __________ it.

I _________________

He _______________

I _________________

She _______________

8.Write questions with yet.

1.Your friend has got a new job. Perhaps she has started it. You ask her:

Have you started your new job yet?

2.Your friend has some new neighbours. Perhaps he has met them. You ask him: _____ you _______

3.Your friend must write a letter. Perhaps she has written it. You ask her: _____

4.Tom was trying to sell his car. Perhaps he has sold it. You ask a friend about Tom:


1.a)You are asking Helen questions beginning Have you ever…? Write the questions.










(London?) Have you ever been to London?

(play / golf?) ______________

(Australia?) _______________

(lose / your passport?) ______

(fly / in a helicopter?) _______

(eat / Chinese food?) _______

(New York?) _____________

(drive / a bus?) ____________

(break / your leg?) _________

No, never.

Yes, many times.

No, never.

Yes, once.

No, never.

Yes, a few times.

Yes, twice.

No, never.

Yes, once.

b) Write sentences about Helen. (Look at her answers above)

1. Helen has never been to London.

2. . . . . . . . .

c) Now write about yourself. How often have you done the things mentioned above?

1. I have never been to London.

2. . . . . . . .

2.Put the adverbs in the right place.

1.(ever) Have you travelled? 2.(always) She has been a brilliant student. 3.(never) We have seen a flying saucer. 4.(just) They have had a walk in the park. 5.(yet) Have you finished your homework? 6.(always) I have wanted to meet your parents. 7.(yet) She hasn’t sent a telegram. 8.(lately) Have you heard from Mary?

3.Give two answers to the following questions according to the model.

M O D E L: How long have you lived here?

a)I’ve lived in Kyiv for three years.

b)I’ve lived in Kyiv since 1996.

1.How long have they known each other? 2.How long have you had this coat? 3.How long has this film been on? 4.How long has he been out? 5. How long have you been a student? 6.How long has she been absent from classes? 7.How long have you been here? 8.How long have the children been with their aunt?

4.Paraphrase the following sentences using the Present Perfect with for or  since.

1.  It’s ten years since I last was in Paris.

2.  I last smoked three years ago.

3.  It’s years since I wrote any poetry.

4.  He last drank wine at his wife’s birthday.

5.  He last ate caviar when he was in Russia.

6.  It’s years since Tony last spoke Chinese.

7.  They last paid me six month ago.

8.  I was last abroad in winter 1983.

9.  My father last took pictures in summer.

5.Translate into English.

1.Я залишив свій зошит вдома. 2.Де Петро? – Він ще не прийшов. 3.Що ти робиш? – Читаю англійське оповідання. – Скільки сторінок ти вже прочитав? – Я прочитав вже десять сторінок. 4.Скільки нових слів ви вивчили на цьому тижні? 5.Я не можу їхати з тобою. Я ще не склав іспиту з англійської мови. 6.Ми щойно прочитали телеграму. 7.Я знаю цього лікаря вже шість років. 8.Чому в тій кімнаті темно? – Я вимкнув світло. 9.Ми не бачили його вже три роки. 10.Нарешті ми закінчили роботу. Тепер ми можемо відпочити.


Модальні дієслова / ModalVerbs

Модальні дієслова виражають можливість, необхідність, бажаність, імовірність, сумнів, дозвіл, заборону, здатність виконання дії. Модальні дієслова не вживаються самостійно, а лише в сполученні з інфінітивом іншого дієслова. Після модальних дієслів інфінітив вживається без частки to. Модальні дієслова не мають форми герундія, дієприкметника, інфінітива, складних часових форм. У третій особі однини теперішнього часу модальні дієслова не мають закінчення –(e)s.

Модальні слова та їх еквіваленти




Can - могти

could- міг

will be able to – зможе

May - може

might- міг

will be allowed to - зможе

Must - повинен

had to - був змушений

will have to – буде змушений

Can - показує фізичну та розумову можливість виконання дії.

May - дозвіл або заборону на виконання дії.

Must – суворий наказ або заборону.


Mary can speak English.

+  S + may   Vo.

Jane may take my dictionary.


You must always come to school in time.


I cannot (can’t) see the stage well from here.

- S + may not Vo.

Mary may not take this book.

must not

You must not (mustn’t) cross the street at the red light.


Can Jane play the piano?

? May   S + Vo?

May I work in your room?


Must we go there at once?


Where can you see the film?

?/W   may   S + Vo?

Where may he play?


What must they do?

Translate into Ukrainian.


1.Mike can run very fast. 2.They can understand French. 3.Kate can speak English well. 4.My brother can come and help you in the garden. 5.Can you speak Spanish? 6.Can your brother help me with mathematics?  7. His little sister can walk already. 8.The children cannot carry this box: it’s too heavy. 9.My friend can’t come in time. 10.The old woman can’t sleep at night. 11.His sister can cook very well. 12.I can sing but I can’t dance.


1.I can speak English. 2.My brother could read and write when he was five. 3.He will be able to enter the University. 4.Could you give me a lift (togive a lift – підвезти)? 5.He must work hard to be a good specialist. 6.We must come home earlier. 7.You must air the room, it’s too stuffy here. 8.I had to walk to the place of work. 9.She had to speak English. 10.He’ll have to stay at home. 11.They will have to go out. 12.I shall have to leave. 13.You may do what you want. 14.May I ask you a question? 15.She may go home. 16.We were allowed to use dictionaries. 17.We shall be allowed to go home. 18.I have to get up early. 19.She had to sell most of her things. 20.They will have to go home. 21.You don’t have to go in.


1.Make the negative sentences interrogative.

MO D E L: She can’t hear you. - Can she hear you?

1.Peter cannot show you the photographs. 2.I cannot give you my racket. 3.They cannot help you with the cooking. 4.She cannot send those letters today. 5.He cannot pass you that banana

2.Make questions to these answers.

MO D E L: …? – Yes, I can. I can speak German very well.

Can you speak German?

1. …? – Yes. I can. I love riding and love horses.  2….? – No, I can’t, but my mother can. She makes great hamburgers. 3. …? – No, I can’t play the guitar, but I can play the piano. 4. …? – Yes, of course I can. My school is not far, so I walk to school every day. 5. …? – No, I can’t do my homework because I haven’t got a pen or a pencil. 6. …? – Yes, I can. And my father can write computer programs, too.

3.Rewrite these sentences using the shortened form of cannot.

M O D E L: She cannot hear you. - She can’t hear you.

1.She cannot give you her pen. 2.I cannot throw you that ball. 3.Petercannot show you the photographs. 4.I cannot give you my clothes.

4.Read and say that you can do it now but you couldn’t do it some time ago. Use the suggested words.

M O D E L: Can you meet him today? (last night).

Yes. I can. I can meet him today but I couldn’t meet him last night.

1.  Can Jim skate? (last winter)

2.  Can you come to the place tonight? (yesterday morning)

3.  Can John repair a radio? (last year)

4.  Can father work in the garden this afternoon? (on Friday)

5.  Can you pay for the radio set this week? (last week)

6.  Can you go with me to the cinema? (in the morning)

7.  Can Roger play the guitar? (a few years ago)

8.  Can Mr. Johnson help us today? (yesterday)

9.  Can we discuss this problem now? (yesterday)

10. Can you understand his behaviour now? (when I was young)

5. Say that you (your friend) can’t do it now but will be able to do it in the future. Use the suggested words.

M O D E L: Can you play chess now? (this afternoon)

I can’t play chess now but I shall be able to play chess this afternoon.

1.  Can Mary do the room with a vacuum-cleaner now? (in the evening

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